RELIABILITY TEST

Cronbach’s alpha is a measure of internal consistency, that is, how closely related a set of items are as a group. It is considered to be a measure of scale reliability. A “high” value for alpha does not imply that the measure is unidimensional. If, in addition to measuring internal consistency, you wish to provide evidence that the scale in question is unidimensional, additional analyses can be performed. Exploratory factor analysis is one method of checking dimensionality. Technically speaking, Cronbach’s alpha is not a statistical test – it is a coefficient of reliability (or consistency).

Reliability Statistics

Cronbach’s Alpha N of Items

.937 4

Interpretation

The alpha coefficient for the four items is .937, suggesting that the items have relatively high internal consistency. (Note that a reliability coefficient of .70 or higher is considered “acceptable” in most social science research situations.)

Checking dimensionality

In addition to computing the alpha coefficient of reliability, as we also want to investigate the dimensionality of the scale

Communalities

Initial Extraction

Ethical Leadership 1.000 .859

Innovative Work Behavior 1.000 .654

Harmonious Work passion 1.000 .923

Talent Management Scale 1.000 .930

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

Total Variance Explained

Component Initial Eigenvalues Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings

Total % of Variance Cumulative % Total % of Variance Cumulative %

1 3.366 84.139 84.139 3.366 84.139 84.139

2 .434 10.852 94.991

3 .151 3.787 98.777

4 .049 1.223 100.000

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

Component Matrixa

Component

1

Talent Management Scale .964

Harmonious Work passion .961

Ethical Leadership .927

Innovative Work Behavior .809

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

a. 1 components extracted.

Looking at the table labeled Total Variance Explained, we see that the eigen value for the first factor is quite a bit larger than the eigen value for the next factor (3.366 versus 0.434). Additionally, the first factor accounts for 84.139% of the total variance. This suggests that the scale items are one-dimensional.

RESEARCH QUESTION ONE

MODEL SUMMARY

The below table generated in a linear regression test in SPSS is Model Summary. It provides detail about the characteristics of the model. In the present case, Pearson Correlation Harmonious Work passion and Ethical Leadership were the main variables considered. The model summary table looks like below.

Model Summary

Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate

1 .855a .731 .730 .58644

a. Predictors: (Constant), Ethical Leadership

Interpretation

R-value represents the correlation between the dependent (Harmonious Work passion) and independent (Ethical Leadership) variable. In this case, the value is 0.855, which means that there is high positive association between time and profit, which is good. R-square shows the total variation for the dependent variable that could be explained by the independent variables. Here the value of R-square is 0.731, which indicates that 73.1% of the variability observed in target variable (Harmonious Work passion) is explained by the regression model.

COEFFICIENT TABLE

The table below shows the strength of the relationship i.e. the significance of the variable in the model and magnitude with which it impacts the dependent variable. This analysis helps in performing the hypothesis testing for a study.

H_0: Ethical Leadership is not positively related to Harmonious Work Passion

H_1: Ethical Leadership is positively related to Harmonious Work Passion

Coefficientsa

Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.

B Std. Error Beta

1 (Constant) .505 .164 3.073 .003

Ethical Leadership .849 .042 .855 20.348 .000

a. Dependent Variable: Harmonious Work passion

Interpretation

The table above shows intercept (Constant) value (a) is 0.505. The slope (b) which is 0.849 the Sig. Value which is 0.000 indicates that there will always be significant increase in Harmonious Work Passion for every increase in Ethical Leadership and we are to reject the null hypothesis since the value is less than 0.05, so we therefore conclude that Ethical Leadership is positively related to Harmonious Work Passion.

RESEARCH QUESTION TWO

MODEL SUMMARY

The below table generated in a linear regression test in SPSS is Model Summary. It provides detail about the characteristics of the model. In the present case, Talent Management Scale and Harmonious Work Passion were the main variables considered. The model summary table looks like below.

Model Summary

Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate

1 .946a .895 .894 .36701

a. Predictors: (Constant), Talent Management Scale

Interpretation

R-value represents the correlation between the dependent (Harmonious Work passion) and independent (Talent Management Scale) variable. In this case, the value is 0.946 which means that there is high positive association between Talent management Scale and Harmonious Work passion, which is good. R-square shows the total variation for the dependent variable that could be explained by the independent variables. Here the value of R-square is 0.895, which indicates that 89.5% of the variability observed in target variable (Harmonious Work passion) is explained by the regression model.

COEFFICIENT TABLE

The table below shows the strength of the relationship i.e. the significance of the variable in the model and magnitude with which it impacts the dependent variable. This analysis helps in performing the hypothesis testing for a study.

H_0: Talent management Scale is not positively related to Harmonious Work Passion

H_1: Talent management Scale is positively related to Harmonious Work Passion

Coefficientsa

Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.

B Std. Error Beta

1 (Constant) .328 .099 3.328 .001

Talent Management Scale .930 .026 .946 35.962 .000

a. Dependent Variable: Harmonious Work passion

Interpretation

The table above shows intercept (Constant) value (a) is 0.328. The slope (b) which is 0.930 the Sig. Value which is 0.000 indicates that there will always be significant increase in Harmonious Work Passion for every unit increase in Talent Management Scale and we are to reject the null hypothesis since the value is less than 0.05, so we therefore conclude that Talent Management Scale is positively related to Harmonious Work Passion.

RESEARCH QUESTION THREE

MODEL SUMMARY

The below table generated in a linear regression test in SPSS is Model Summary. It provides detail about the characteristics of the model. In the present case, Harmonious Work Passion and Innovative work behavior were the main variables considered. The model summary table looks like below.

Model Summary

Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate

1 .702a .492 .489 .66703

a. Predictors: (Constant), Harmonious Work passion

Interpretation

R-value represents the Pearson correlation coefficient between the dependent (Innovative work behavior) and independent (Harmonious Work Passion) variable. In this case, the value is 0.702 which means that there is high positive association between Innovative work behavior and Harmonious Work passion, which is good. R-square shows the total variation for the dependent variable that could be explained by the independent variables. Here the value of R-square is 0.492, which indicates that 49.2% of the variability observed in target variable (Innovative work behavior) is explained by the regression model.

COEFFICIENT TABLE

The table below shows the strength of the relationship i.e. the significance of the variable in the model and magnitude with which it impacts the dependent variable. This analysis helps in performing the hypothesis testing for a study.

H_0: Harmonious Work Passion is not positively related to Innovative work behavior

H_1: Harmonious Work Passion is positively related to Innovative work behavior

Coefficientsa

Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.

B Std. Error Beta

1 (Constant) 1.847 .185 9.968 .000

Harmonious Work passion .581 .048 .702 12.145 .000

a. Dependent Variable: Innovative Work Behavior

Interpretation

The table above shows intercept (Constant) value (a) is 1.847. The slope (b) which is 0.581 the Sig. Value which is 0.000 indicates that there will always be significant increase in Innovative work behavior for every unit increase in Harmonious Work Passion and we are to reject the null hypothesis since the value is less than 0.05, so we therefore conclude that Harmonious Work Passion is positively related to Innovative work behavior.

RESEARCH QUESTION FOUR

MODEL SUMMARY

The below table generated in a linear regression test in SPSS is Model Summary. It provides detail about the characteristics of the model. In the present case, Ethical Leadership and Innovative work behavior were the main variables considered. The model summary table looks like below.

Model Summary

Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate

1 .633a .401 .397 .72452

a. Predictors: (Constant), Ethical Leadership

Interpretation

R-value represents the Pearson correlation coefficient between the dependent (Innovative work behavior) and independent (Ethical Leadership) variable. In this case, the value is 0.633 which means that there is moderate positive association between Innovative work behavior and Ethical Leadership, which is good. R-square shows the total variation for the dependent variable that could be explained by the independent variables. Here the value of R-square is 0.401, which indicates that 40.1% of the variability observed in target variable (Innovative work behavior) is explained by the regression model.

COEFFICIENT TABLE

The table below shows the strength of the relationship i.e. the significance of the variable in the model and magnitude with which it impacts the dependent variable. This analysis helps in performing the hypothesis testing for a study.

H_0: Ethical Leadership is not positively related to Innovative work behavior

H_1: Ethical Leadership is positively related to Innovative work behavior

Coefficientsa

Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.

B Std. Error Beta

1 (Constant) 2.038 .203 10.031 .000

Ethical Leadership .520 .052 .633 10.092 .000

a. Dependent Variable: Innovative Work Behavior

Interpretation

The table above shows intercept (Constant) value (a) is 2.038. The slope (b) which is 0.520 the Sig. Value which is 0.000 indicates that there will always be significant increase in Innovative work behavior for every unit increase in Ethical Leadership and we are to reject the null hypothesis since the value is less than 0.05, so we therefore conclude that Ethical Leadership is positively related to Innovative work behavior.

RESEARCH QUESTION FIVE

In mediation according to Wikipedia, the relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable is hypothesized to be an indirect effect that exists due to the influence of a third variable (the mediator). As a result when the mediator is included in a regression analysis model with the independent variable, the effect of the independent variable is reduced and the effect of the mediator remains significant.

The Sobel test is basically a specialized t test that provides a method to determine whether the reduction in the effect of the independent variable, after including the mediator in the model, is a significant reduction and therefore whether the mediation effect is statistically significant.

H_0: The positive relationship between Ethical Leadership and innovative work behavior is not mediated by Harmonious Work Passion

H_1: The positive relationship between Ethical Leadership and innovative work behavior is mediated by Harmonious Work Passion

The Sobel test is conducted using R Programming language and the following output is produced:

SOBEL TEST

Sobel Aroian Goodman

z.value 5.18E+00 5.18E+00 5.19E+00

p.value 2.20E-07 2.27E-07 2.13E-07

Interpretation

From the output above, basically we are interested in the values in the Sobel column where the z value is 5.18 and the corresponding p-value is 0.0000002199435. Since this p-value is less than the 5% level of significant, we are to reject the null hypothesis that there is no mediation effect and conclude that the positive relationship between Ethical Leadership and innovative work behavior is mediated by Harmonious Work Passion.

RESEARCH QUESTION SIX

MODEL SUMMARY

The below table generated in a linear regression test in SPSS is Model Summary. It provides detail about the characteristics of the model. In the present case, Talent management Scale and Innovative work behavior were the main variables considered. The model summary table looks like below.

Model Summary

Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate

1 .675a .456 .453 .84847

a. Predictors: (Constant), Innovative Work Behavior

Interpretation

R-value represents the Pearson correlation coefficient between the dependent (Talent management Scale) and independent (Innovative work behavior) variable. In this case, the value is 0.675 which means that there is moderate positive association between Innovative work behavior and Talent management Scale, which is good. R-square shows the total variation for the dependent variable that could be explained by the independent variables. Here the value of R-square is 0.456, which indicates that 45.6% of the variability observed in target variable (Talent management Scale) is explained by the regression model.

COEFFICIENT TABLE

The table below shows the strength of the relationship i.e. the significance of the variable in the model and magnitude with which it impacts the dependent variable. This analysis helps in performing the hypothesis testing for a study.

H_0: Talent management Scale is not positively related to Innovative work behavior

H_1: Talent management Scale is positively related to Innovative work behavior

Coefficientsa

Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig.

B Std. Error Beta

1 (Constant) .313 .302 1.038 .301

Innovative Work Behavior .830 .074 .675 11.293 .000

a. Dependent Variable: Talent Management Scale

Interpretation

The table above shows intercept (Constant) value (a) is 0.313. The slope (b) which is 0.830 the Sig. Value which is 0.000 indicates that there will always be significant increase in Innovative work behavior for every unit increase in Talent management Scale and we are to reject the null hypothesis since the value is less than 0.05, so we therefore conclude that Talent management Scale is positively related to Innovative work behavior.

RESEARCH QUESTION SEVEN

H_0: The positive relationship between that Talent management Scale and innovative work behavior is not mediated by Harmonious Work Passion

H_1: The positive relationship between that Talent management Scale and innovative work behavior is mediated by Harmonious Work Passion

The Sobel test is conducted using mediation.test() function of “bda” package in R Programming language and the following output is produced:

SOBEL TEST

Sobel Aroian Goodman

z.value 3.323277 3.322006 3.324551

p.value 0.00089 0.000894 0.000886

INTERPRETATION

From the output above, basically we are interested in the values in the Sobel column where the z value is 3.323277and the corresponding p-value is 0.00089. Since this p-value is less than the 5% level of significant, we are to reject the null hypothesis that there is no mediation effect and conclude that the positive relationship between Talent management Scale and innovative work behavior is mediated by Harmonious Work Passion.