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Portfolio Theory Introduction
How does the separation outcome change when making the optimal investment decision under certainty when compared to making the optimal investment decision under uncertainty? You may assume a risk-free asset exists where relevant. This can be concluded by use on an in-depth analysis where the analysis under uncertainty will be conducted. The other analysis will occur under certainty and the comparison of the separated results.

Comparison Under Certainty

We will exam uncertainty when making most reliable investment choices wherein the items of uncertainty are stated in phrases of the statistical parameters as well as the possibility distribution of the monetary claims. The choice-making beneath uncertainty involves the market uncertainty in addition to the event uncertainty. marketplace uncertainty refers to when traders have difficulty in assessing the modern-day and destiny market condition due to volatility within the marketplace place (Quinlan, 2022).The occasion uncertainty refers back to the unpredictability of destiny occasions that can affects the selections to be made.For this examine we will use XYZ percent that’s a hypothetical investments business enterprise.XYZ percent also has identified the significance of well timed making of the right funding selections which results in organization’s future boom and beautify the shareholder wealth and they comply with a five step technique to make investment choices.
Understanding of agency’s goals and targets and aligning capital investments with pre-set dreams and objectives is critical when making funding choices. because the first step, XYZ % comply with their investment possibilities with their organisation dreams and objectives where decided on annual price range in the company to set a benchmark for the enterprise’s portfolio control method.
As the second one step, they make selection on asset allocation. At this level, they typically determine the location where they are going to invest their capital. For an instance, at the second degree of the investment selection making process they decide whether or not they are making an investment in actual estate, invest in equity, put money into fixed deposits …and so on. when choosing asset allocation, they commonly bear in mind and study macroeconomic elements which include hobby charges, inflation, enterprise boom fee and so forth. to limit the funding threat. And also they remember and examine the coins flows of every investment and time taken to recover the investment.Typically we recall and observe on macroeconomic elements in order to make a decision on belongings allocation.
At this level, they conclude the investment cost and possibilities based on return on investment in each possibility or asset. For an example, they like to invest more in the investment opportunities in which the company can come to be with higher returns and that they deliver a excessive rank for the ones kind of investments and they assign lower ranks for investments which gives lower return on funding in addition, at this level, their funding team execute a monetary feasibility check for every possibility or asset earlier than ranking of the same and will pass to the funding committee of the organisation for final assessment and approval earlier than imparting it to the board of the organisation.
At this fourth degree of the manner, they could further do not forget sub-possibilities or sub belongings of every possibility to be positioned within the portfolio control and they carry out a detailed analysis. For an example if they’re going to invest in fairness, they ought to pick out both everyday stocks or desire shares to be placed based totally on the go back on investment. After considering opportunities and rank assigned primarily based on return on investment fee, they make decisions on which opportunities or initiatives they are going to capitalize.

Comparison under Uncertainty

This is the very last step of the manner of funding decision making practice in XYZ percent. comparing the real asset performance with the expected performance and take corrective moves immediately to get the assignment lower back to the tune if there are any deviations is very essential as capital investments are long time and critical for the future increase and achievement of any company. For this reason, at this very last level of investment selection making method, XYZ percent analyzes the real performance of every invested possibility they execute and compare it with the predicted performance to perceive whether or not there are any deviations so that it will decide that the invested mission is generating expected results and employer objectives are finished or no longer.
The 2nd first of facts is the information on the enterprise on which the investment possibility being analyzed operates beneath. This will consist of authorities rules affecting that specific sector; the degree and nature of opposition in the market and different uncontrolled factors such as the extent of outcomes of weather patterns on the operations of the agency. Generally, this piece of information includes everything on the surroundings underneath which the business enterprise operates on. The ultimate piece of information to be obtained is facts regarding the employer itself. This includes the governing policies of the organization, the level of revel in that each the control and personnel of the enterprise own and the market control techniques employed by the company in their operations. How that employer deals with crises both in operation and management is also vital for the essential evaluation by way of the traders. A number of the events that must be considered whilst making ideal investment choices are which include the modern-day oil price shocks which have driven up the value of doing enterprise especially in manufaturing.This will imply stocks of producing agencies would be less appealing to buyers given such event uncertainties.

Assumptions Under Risk Free Rate

Investment decisions are also based on the risk return portfolio because of the higher the risk the higher the returns for the investor.However,the investor must balance between his risk appetite and the returns as there are those who are risk averse, risk neutral or risk lovers. The likelihood that an actual return deviates from the expected return is what is referred to as the risk. Some of the sources of risk for the XYZ hypothetical company would be such as the risk of default, interest rate risk, purchasing power risk, market risk, reinvestment risk and call risk.
The accounting profits of a company are however not used in fundamental analysis of business since they do not reflect the organization’s ability to honor its economic obligations. In this case, cash flows represent the flow of money in and out of the business; where the outflows represent money spent in investment while the inflows represent the money coming into the organization as the return on investments.For a business entity to be considered successful, it should record higher cash inflows than the cash outflows. This generally means that the returns on investments are higher than the investment capital. The risks are also well analyzed before making an investment decision. For instance, in respect to cash flows being used as a measure of a company’s performance, the value of the currency used by the company today may not be the value of the currency sometime later due to inflation and deflation; caused by reasons beyond the company’s control. Determining the risks involved in a businessinvestment opportunity may be difficult due to the highly dynamic nature of business operations and the policies governing them. Investors should, therefore, estimate the risk levels and determining whether their risk tolerance can accommodate the levels projected.’

Comparison Under Separated Results

Risks in business operations cause differences in projected performances and include risks associated with all aspects of the business operations such as operational risk, political risks, regulatory risks, contingent risks, financial risks, and strategic risks.
. Political and regulatory risks affect business performance almost in a similar way and result from changes in the regulations and the policies governing the operations. Contingent risks involve the occurrence of a possible negative event such as a terrorist attack or a natural disaster which shall directly affect the nature of the business operations. Operational risks arise from changes and difficulties in the managerial operations of the company which adversely exposes the company. Financial risks affecting the business may arise from changes in currency exchange and interest rates while strategic risk may occur due to changes such as the technology primarily used by the company for production becoming obsolete.


Investors have different criterions of making decisions related to their investment decisions (Tzeng & Jih-Jeng, 2011). To determine the viability of a capital project and the most appropriate project to invest in, many investors use capital budgeting techniques to make those critical decisions. These tools are the investment appraisal tools and utilize two conventional methods namely; discounting approach and no-discounting approaches. Discounting approaches work by taking into consideration the time value of money while the non-discounting approach does not consider the concept of time value attached to money. Discounting approach considers the current value of monetary assets and project into prospects by using the internal rate ofreturn. Non-discounted methods use the estimated return periods and the accounting rate of return.

The static decision-making technique does not consider the time value of money but only the cash flows (Tzeng & Jih-Jeng, 2011). They completely ignore the risks associated with the venture. They largely consider the investments’ estimated return period which could be misleading as it does not take into account the time value of money. The dynamic criterion of decision making by investors puts into account the events that may occur and are out of control of the investor.


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