Signals and communication Homework 2(8 problems)

Given the analog signal, sampled at the rate of 8000Hz (𝑡) = 3 𝑐𝑜𝑠( 2𝜋 × 1500𝑡) + 2 𝑐𝑜𝑠( 2𝜋 × 4200𝑡) t ≥ 0 Sketch the spectrum of the sampled signal up to 20 KHz Unsampled signal spectrum is; X(jw) —————————–(3/2)————————————- ——————————1————————————— -4.2 -1.5 1.5 4.2 kHZ Sampled signal spectrum is; X(jw) ——————————————————(3/2)——————————————————— —————————————————–1————————————————————– -17.5 -16.0 -14.5 -12.4 -11.8 -9.5 -6.5 -3.8 3.8 6.5 9.5 11.8 12.4 14.5 16.0 17 khz frequency In the above spectrum, there is an overlap. (b) Sketch the recovered analog signal spectrum if an ideal low pass filter with cutoff frequency of 4KHz is used to filter the sampled signal in order to recover the original signal. X(jw) khz frequency -3.8 +3.8 2. Assuming that a 5 bit ADC channel accepts analog input ranging from 0 to 4 volts , determine the following Number of quantization levels Levels=25=32 Quantization step size Step size Quantization output level when the analog signal is 1.2 volts =20th level Binary code produced by the ADC in this case (1.2 volts input). Binary code for decimal 20 is 10100 3. MATLAB Project: Given a signal waveform (𝑡) = 3.25 𝑠𝑖𝑛( 2𝜋 × 50𝑡) + 1.25 𝑐𝑜𝑠( 2𝜋 × 100𝑡 + 𝜋/4) Sample it at 8000 samples per second and (a) Write a MATLAB program to quantize x(t) using 6 bit bipolar quantizer to obtain the Quantized signal xq, assuming the signal range is from -5 to 5. The function below performs signal quantization decoding. Here X-min will be -5 and X-max will be +5. The function is named decodingquant and is added to the path of the software. It will be called in the main program. The bits will be 6 bits since we are using a 6 bit bipolar quantizer. function deout = decodingquant(bits,Xmin,Xmax,I) le=2*bits; delta=(Xmax-Xmin)/le; deout=Xmin+I*delta; %the following function performs signal quantization decoding. This is a code for a function named quantization that performs signal quantization: function [I, out] = quantization(bits,Xmin,Xmax, value) le=2*bits; delta=(Xmax-Xmin)/le; I=round((value-Xmin)/delta); if I==le I=I-1; end if I<0 I=0; end out=Xmin+I*delta; The main program: This is where we will call our functions: quantization decodingquant We also initialize and write the code. This program quantizes the signal using 6-bits bipolar quantizer to obtain the to obtain the quantized signal x_q and plots the original and quantized signal. clc clear close all Tm=1/50; %Time period of the signal fs=8000; %This is the samplig frequency T=1/fs; %The sampling time period t=0:T:2*Tm; %This the the two period-time array. signal=3.25*sin(2*pi*50*t)+1.25*co bits=6; %6 bit quantizer as asked in the question. l=length(signal); ter initializing everything, we carry out quantization Index=zeros; quadsignal=zeros; for x=1:l [Index(x), qout]=quantization(bits,-5,5,signal(x)); end % we call the function inprder to recover signal from quantized values. % also indicate the signal range:from -5 to 5. for x=1:l quadsignal(x)=decodingquant(bits,-5,5,Index(x)); end plot(t,signal,'b') hold on stairs(t,quadsignal,'r'); ylabel('Signal') % xlabel('time (s)') legend('Original ','Quantized ') %Inorder to plot original signal and quantised signal. hold off

Matthew Benn Eulogy

On behalf of our family, I thank everyone for being here. We truly feel supported by everyone’s kindness and prayers during this difficult time. From the day Matthew was born, he brought a joy and light to the room that nobody else could match.

Vancouver Plan

The Vancouver Plan Vancouver is a city located in Canada and the third largest metropolitan area, after Toronto and Montreal with a population of almost 2.5 million people. It is a cultural and economic center of a prosperous, dynamic and rapidly growing region with its population anticipated to grow by approximately a million more people by 2050 with about half a million more homes and jobs. The area plays an important role in the region as the largest regional center for jobs at 65% of all regional office-space construction as well as a hub for new immigrants accounting to 25% of immigrants coming to the region (Plan, 2020). The implications of this growth to the region and its residents are dependent on how the city is managed. Planning plays an important role in managing growth of cities and urban areas. Among the recent plans I the area The Vancouver plan is a visionary long-range plan that was established to guide change and growth of the city to the year 2050 and beyond with the aim to unify the vision for the future land use of the city. The plan is equipped with policies that will help Vancouver become more affordable and livable with a strong economy where nature and people are able to thrive (Plan, 2020). The Vancouver plan comprise many individual plans guided by strategies on land use that gives a clear path and set a city-wide direction to achieve shared goals in an increasingly complex future. The Vancouver Plan planning approach is guided by three foundational principals which are equity where the benefits of the change and growth are distributed across neighbors with particular emphasis on equity-denied groups, resilience that involved a proactive planning aimed at future uncertainties so as to adopt, withstand, thrive and recover from shocks such as adverse climate change and earthquakes and reconciliation that aimed at forming mutual relationships of understanding and respect as well as integrate perspectives of the urban indigenous communities in the decision making and planning process. Engagement is also a key element in the planning approach. Among the key stakeholders are residents, indigenous people, regional authorities and senior governments, businesses, non-profit civic advisory bodies, community groups and other stakeholders. Such engagements are to ensure a shared vision for future diverse communities to resonate with. During the planning conversations pilot methods for the under-represented and the equity-denied groups are formulated to ensure prioritization and inclusivity in the planning process is achieved. The three principals provide a foundation to the Vancouver Plan and are interconnected in several ways throughout the plan to serve as an implementation framework, inform policy development directly and enhance the planning process. The plan set out frameworks to address the needs of every individual including reconciliation that addresses Indigenous people and settlers who have faced colonial violence and dispossession, racist and discriminatory policies as well as segregation. Reconciliation seeks to strengthen and support the healing of past wrongs and harms that continue to this day and have happened in the past. Frameworks on equity addresses the barriers in place to access of city services and opportunities as well as participation in aspects of public life including, economic, cultural social, political and spiritual activities. These frameworks intend to align processes, decisions and policies with equity frameworks to help remove and identify barriers; make all neighborhoods more inclusive to ensure all groups and individuals participate in all aspects of public life; minimize displacement to ensuring change and growth provide opportunities for organizations businesses and residents. Framework on resilience is central at ensuring overall well-being, safety and health of the residents and the city. The frameworks are focus on preparedness and thriving neighborhoods that helps communities contribute to the decision-making, share knowledge and collectively recover and prepare for both stresses and shocks; collaborative and proactive approaches to create a better understanding of the city’s vulnerabilities, hazards, risks and strengths related to our social, economic, physical and ecological systems so as to change systems in the city that make people vulnerable; adaptive and safe building and infrastructure improves access to basic needs, ensure provision of safe and reliable services today and in future and enhances performance in case of an earthquake. Paul Davidoff advocacy planning paradigm is anchored upon the concept of pluralism in planning. The goal of the planning process is to determine which of the several vision-plans or scenarios will be implemented and adopted. With respect to adoption and implementation, every respective outcome has different costs and benefits to each of the groups involved in the planning process. The notion of pluralism in planning, use of values and choices driven by social and political issues are central aspects in making planning decisions. Paul Davidoff’s planning theory corresponds with The Vancouver Plan as among one of its major foundational principals is equity(PARKER & STREET, 2018). The approaches invested in equity include indigenous rights which recognize, uphold and protect inherent and constitutional rights of indigenous rights; racial justice which understands and talks about racial implications and actively working to dismantle racism; intersectionality which recognizes different forms of systematic discriminations and designs different ways to specifically benefit the negatively impacted; systematic orientation aimed at identifying embedded discrimination within systems and coming up with better incentives and rules that will lead to better equitable outcomes(PARKER & STREET, 2018). John Forrester and Patsy Healey’s communicative planning theory is an approach that aims to gather stakeholders and engage them in in a process of decision making together in a manner that respects the position of all involved. The main idea is that planning can become more just and democratic through enhancement of quantity and quality of communication between actors of planning such as politicians, planners, private sectors and citizens. The Vancouver plan applies the same approach in its plan preparation as engagement is a critical process so as to attain many perspectives as possible. The plan places emphasis on centering voices that have been left out in the planning dialogue ensuring that everyone is considered in the formulation of the plan. The first three engagement processes included workshops, pop-up events, surveys and engaged 28,500 contacts. References PARKER, G., & STREET, E. (2018). Advocacy planning: Enabling Participatory Planning, 43–60. Plan, V. (2020). Vancouver plan 20 50.

Models of Health Care Coordination

In healthcare industry today, care coordination models normally entails systematic strategies that are geared towards enhancing continuity and bridge transition gaps of care. In most cases, this employs the case of care or rather case management, whereby a responsible individual or team assist the patients in managing their medical care and navigate interactions with the health care systems (Vrijhoef, 2022). A care coordination model is operated by care coordinators who connect people to health and human service programs. Such systems play an important role in making referral, developing a personalized care plan, and in managing the exchange of information between health care providers and other human services organization. An effective and efficient care coordination model takes into account the general continuum of health care services, knowledge transmission, early child care and primary care and early intervention mechanism, food and nutrition elements and housing among other human services which are essential in improving the quality of life for the general population.

American revolution

Introduction Reconstruction Era in America from a moderate Revisionist standpoint contends that the era was neither a complete failure nor a sufficiently progressive attempt to provide black Americans full voting rights and political representation. The era begins with Abraham Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation and ends with the Compromise of 1877. This summary begins with Abraham Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation and finishes with the Compromise of 1877. Although the official beginning of Reconstruction did not occur until the end of the Civil War in 1865, it is generally acknowledged that the era began in 1863, when President Lincoln signed an executive decree known as the Emancipation Proclamation. This is despite the fact that the end of the war in 1865 did not mark the commencement of Reconstruction. This “freed” all slaves in America, but only on paper because the federal government and the Confederate States were at war at the time. However, the declaration was extremely clear regarding the destiny of slaves in the South in the event that the Union was victorious in the war. Foner also focuses on key events that took place before Reconstruction but had a substantial influence on the policy that was established after the Civil War. In specifically, he discusses the Port Royal Experiment that was done during the years 1861 and 1862. The Port Royal Experiment took place in Union-controlled territory in the Sea Islands, which are located off the coast of South Carolina. This initiative was meant to serve as a potential model for wider Reconstruction efforts. Following the abandonment of their slaves by their Confederate owners, a total of around ten thousand persons were abandoned on the islands. While this was going on, Union and other Northern authorities studied the ex-slaves’ work and lifestyle patterns to see if they were fit for farming without white landowners. The research’s results could help guide future Reconstruction initiatives. Without the same degree of formal education as white Americans, former slaves, despite their unquestionable work ethic, would be at a huge disadvantage. Even if they worked harder than white Americans, this would still be the case. Despite the fact that the Civil War was still ongoing in 1864, the Confederate army and other significant rebel organizations had been driven out of a number of Southern states. This necessitated a discussion between Congress and Lincoln regarding next moves in the case of a Confederate capitulation. To enact the Wade-Davis Act, the so-called radical Republicans in Congress fought hard. A majority of voters in each former Confederate state would have to take an oath dubbed the “Ironclad Oath” and affirm that they had never supported the Confederacy for the bill offered by Ohio Senator Benjamin Wade and Maryland Representative Henry Davis to pass. A state that joined the Confederacy cannot rejoin the Union without this. Lincoln strongly disagreed with the Wade-Davis Bill and instead advocated for the “10 Percent Rule,” which stipulated that just 10% of a Confederate state’s population had to swear to uphold the Emancipation Proclamation. Lincoln took a stand that was diametrically opposed to the policies enshrined in the Wade-Davis Act. Lincoln’s vice president, Andrew Johnson of Tennessee, succeeded him as president after his assassination in 1865, although he never had the chance to implement Lincoln’s Reconstruction plans. Johnson was significantly more hesitant to endorse the extreme goal of the Republican Party than his predecessor, Abraham Lincoln. Many believed that Johnson would not devote himself fully to the Reconstruction effort, in contrast to Lincoln’s portrayal of him. It was his hope that the Reconstruction would be finished before the year’s end. Meanwhile, radical Republicans had a more nuanced understanding of the problems of restoring the South’s economy and ensuring that freed slaves had equal access to democratic institutions like voting and schooling, according to Foner. As a result of this controversy, President Lyndon B. Johnson’s administration and the radical Republicans, headed by Pennsylvania’s Representative Thaddeus Stevens, fell deeply at odds with one another. The section of the party led by Stevens won a two-thirds majority in the 1866 election, giving them the power to efficiently manage Reconstruction while also thwarting Johnson’s hasty measures. Johnson avoided impeachment and expulsion from office, but his ability to steer the country during Reconstruction was severely constrained. Foner claims that the years between 1866 and 1868 were the most fruitful for the advancement of laws protecting the rights of former slaves. The Civil Rights Act of 1866 disenfranchised President Andrew Johnson and guaranteed that all citizens of the United States, regardless of color, would be eligible to vote and hold public office. It also guaranteed that all citizens of the United States would be eligible to vote and run for public office. The Fourteenth Amendment was also ratified in the United States of America, guaranteeing the permanent establishment of certain protections. Foner highlights the many ways in which significant federal laws were unable to quickly improve the living conditions of freedpeople in the South. As a direct result of congressional actions done in the name of “Radical Reconstruction,” growing white supremacist organisations like the Ku Klux Klan exposed these people to unprecedented levels of brutality and intimidation. The economic crisis of 1873, commonly referred to as the “Panic of 1873,” affected the South particularly hard, and this violence only got worse as a direct result. It was widely known that the Radical Republicans’ efforts to rebuild the South had failed, and as a result, the political center began to tilt toward the Democratic Party. As a result of the “Corrupt Bargain” or “Compromise of 1877,” Reconstruction officially came to an end in 1877. The race between Rutherford B. Hayes of the Republicans and Samuel Tilden of the Democrats for the presidency in 1876 was a tight one. For the sake of ending the election question, the Democratically controlled House of Representatives decided to acknowledge Hayes as president after he committed to withdraw federal forces from those Southern states where Republicans were still dominating Reconstruction activities. Nonetheless, the deal was conditioned on Hayes’s wording this commitment. Without them, the government would be unable to protect the newly established legal rights for freedmen. For decades to come, African Americans in these states would face unrelenting acts of violence, intimidation, and voter suppression. Conclusion Foner presents a vivid picture in his all-encompassing history of the Reconstruction Era, written mostly from the perspective of former slaves residing in the South, of how the Radical Republicans’ good intentions fell short due to economic downturns, political jockeying, and severe bigotry. He achieves this by providing a wealth of specifics about what happened during this time frame.However, the vast majority of white Southerners believed that black people could never be as successful as whites. This led white southerners to the widespread view that African Americans should remain in a position of subordination, and they initially turned to black codes and violence to enforce this belief.

Health Accounting

Chapter 15 Question 1 There are three main steps to be followed in investment analysis. The first one is to point out the investment opportunity. In other words, you identify that investment opportunity you want to engage in. After identifying the opportunity, you might have listed a list of investment opportunities you want to engage in (Sabirov et al., 2021). The second step is now to compare and contrast the potential profit levels of these opportunities, if the investment option you have chosen is very promising in terms of profits, then other options, then you are well to go, but if it ascertains a extremely lower profit level than other investment options, then it will force you to consider another option to avoid incurring losses (Sabirov et al., 2021). The last step in this process is to compare the cost of the investment, to the future cashflows, or rather the potential profits the option will bring upon execution of the investment. Ideally, the profits should be higher than the costs, and if this does not happen, then it is recommendable to consider other options, since the primary goal of investing is to make profits, and not to make losses. Question 2 False. Investment analysis is not concerned with revenues and expenses, rather, it is concerned with the cash flows, both inflows and outflows in that case. By analyzing the cash inflows and outflows, investment analysts are easily able to predict the potential future performance of an investment, thereby help in choosing the best portfolio to invest in order to avoid incurring losses (Shair et al., 2021). To determine the better payback period, it is important to determine the payback period for each investment project. Using the formula Payback Period=(Cost of Investment)/(Average Annual Cash Flow), the payback period for the first project is 3 years and 2 years for the second project. Thus, the second project has the better payback period. However, this method of analysis disregards the time value of money. In other words, the first project is more profitable than the second project, a fact that the method of analysis ignores. Explain compounding and discounting Compounding refers to growth in the value an investment by crediting interest to the initial amount invested (principal) in addition to the interest previously paid. In other words, compounding is interest on the sum of principal and interest paid. On the other hand, discounting is the reverse of compounding – it entails estimating the present value of future cash flow that is to be earned or received at some point in the future. How much will $6,000 invested at 5% simple interest be worth in 3 years? What will it be worth if the interest rate is 7%? The value of an investment over a given period using simple interest is computed with the formula FA=P(1+rt). FA is the final amount or the ultimate value of the investment, P is the invested amount or principal, r is the interest rate and t is the time frame. Thus, the final amount with 5% interest rate is: FA=6000(1+(0.05)3)=6000(1.15)=6900 The final amount is $6,900. With 7% interest rate, the final amount is: FA=6000(1+(0.07)3)=6000(1.21)=7260 The final amount is $7,260. Compounded annually, the investment will be: FA=P〖(1+r/n)〗^nt=5000〖(1+0.03/1)〗^((1*4))=5000(1.1255)=5,627.54 The final amount is $5,627.54. If compounded quarterly, the investment will be: FA=P〖(1+r/n)〗^nt=5000〖(1+0.03/16)〗^((16*4))=5000(1.1274)=5,636.85 The final amount is $5,636.85, If the interest rate is 6% and compounded annually: FA=P〖(1+r/n)〗^nt=5000〖(1+0.06/1)〗^((1*4))=5000(1.2625)=6,312.50 The final amount is $6,312.50. Compounded quarterly: FA=P〖(1+r/n)〗^nt=5000〖(1+0.06/16)〗^((16*4))=5000(1.2707)=6,353.39 The final amount is $6,353.39. 5. Let FV=PMT((〖(1+i)〗^N-1)/i), where FV is the value of the cash flows today, PMT is the $10,000 offered annually, and i is interest and N is the number of years. FV=10000(((1+0.05)^10-1)/0.05)= 125,778.93 The cash flows would be worth $125,778.93 today. Let the initial investment be $68,000. The payments from the county over the five-year period will be 800 x 15 = $12,000. Subtracting the $3,000 annual maintenance cost leaves WCHC with annual net cash flow of $9,000. Using these figures, the net present value (NPV) of the costs of purchasing and operating the van over the five-year period is: Year Cash Flow Present Value Factor of Discount Rate (5%) Present Value of Cash Flow 0 -68,000.00 1 -68000 1 9000 0.9524 8571.6 2 9000 0.907 8163 3 9000 0.8638 7774.2 4 9000 0.8227 7404.3 5 9000 0.7835 7051.5 NPV -29035.4 The table indicates that the net present value of the costs of purchasing and operating the van for five years will be $(29,035.40). Since the NPV is negative, it means the payments from the county are insufficient. Thus, $29,035.40 must be raised in grants before WCHC purchases the van. The board’s logic is flawed because it fails to account for the time value of money when comparing the $50,000 expense with the $49,000 income. To compute the IRR on the investment, assume a discount rate of 5%. The table below presents the computations and indicates that there will be an IRR of 11% on the investment. Year Cash Flow Factor of the 5% Discount Rate Discounted Cash Inflow 0 -50000 1 7000 1 7000 0.9524 6666.8 2 7000 0.907 6349 3 7000 0.8638 6046.6 4 7000 0.8227 5758.9 5 7000 0.7835 5484.5 6 7000 0.7462 5223.4 7 7000 0.7107 4974.9 Internal rate of return (IRR) 11% Why can the IRR method lead to suboptimal decision-making by organizations? The IRR may lead to suboptimal decision-making because of the following reasons. First, the method relies on a fixed discount rate while in reality the figure varies from time to time. Secondly, the method is effective in scenarios where the cashflow profile is simple. In other words, the method is ineffective when used in scenarios with multiple negative and positive cash flows. Thirdly, the method fails to provide required results if the discount rate is not specified. Chapter 16 Working capital techniques focus specifically on what aspects of an organization’s finances? The working capital method is primarily an accounting approach that focuses on maintaining a proper balance between a firm’s liabilities and current assets. A successful functional capital program helps organizations meet their financial responsibilities and increase revenues. Managing working capital entails keeping track of goods, funds, receivables and accounts payable. Main performance metrics, such as the capital ratio, inventory turnover ratio, and ratio analysis, are frequently used in a practical working capital management system to discover sectors that need concentration to preserve profitability and liquidity. What specific task does a manager undertake when handling working capital issues? A manager’s primary focus is often on lowering receivables by enhancing collections from delinquent debtors, analyzing whether inventories are obtained appropriately or purchased in bulk in excess of the demand, and negotiating with suppliers for higher credit terms. The executive ensures that short-term borrowings are reflected by the drawing power available from the company’s existing assets. If there is a shortage in working capital, the manager will concentrate on borrowing long-term money and using them to fill the shortfall with the relevant permissions. What are the three primary reasons an organization holds cash or cash equivalents The three main reasons an organization holds cash are for speculative, precautionary, and transactional purposes. Firstly, firms hold funds to discover the opportunity to take full advantage of rare chances that, if acted upon immediately, will benefit them. This is an example of purchasing excess inventory at a discount larger than the carrying costs of retaining the stock. Secondly, keeping cash as a precaution acts as a firm’s emergency reserve. If planned cash inflows are not obtained, expected funds retained on a precautionary premise may be utilized to pay short-term commitments for which the net income may have been budgeted. Lastly, firms exist to generate products or supply services. The provision of services and the creation of products necessitate monetary inflows and outflows. Companies possess funds to meet their income and expenditure outflow requirements. Overall, it is significant for corporations to hold cash equivalents to accomplish these three purposes. What is the accounts receivable cycle? Why is this task especially important for healthcare organizations? The Accounts Receivable (AR) cycle is the amount of money owed to a business for products and services provided or utilized but not yet compensated for by clients. On the income statement, accounts receivable is shown as a current asset. The ratios of accounts receivable to outstanding sales or dates revenue can be used to determine how strong an organization’s AR is. Due to the client’s legal duty to pay the debt, businesses include accounts receivable as assets on their balance sheets. They are regarded as liquid assets since they may be pledged as security against a loan to pay for immediate expenses. The accounts receivable cycle is significant to health organizations since the reimbursements that a hospital or other medical facility receives from patients or their insurance companies are one of its key sources of income. As a result, a hospital can continue to operate and serve more people if it can effectively manage its accounts payable system. The accounts receivable process is vital to healthcare and non-health firms because the funds are categorized as current assets. What is the goal of EOQ? How does it differ from JIT? EOQ’s purpose is to determine the optimum quantity of product units that are supposed to be purchased. A firm’s purchasing, distributing, and warehousing expenses can be reduced if this goal is met. The EOQ formula can be changed to establish alternative production levels and firms with sophisticated supply chains and significant variable expenses generate EOQ using a program in their computer software. EOQ significantly differs from Just In Time (JIT) since inventory is a production technique focusing on producing or procuring items only when needed. The emphasis is primarily on reducing the period between the order date and the time of raw material acquisition. As a result, JIT does not presuppose a constant demand. In retrospect, although these systems significantly differ from each other, they are vital in the management of goods production. What are the steps in managing the revenue cycle The stages of managing the revenue process include pre-authorization, service capture, and claim submission. Pre-authorization is the initial step in revenue cycle management. At this time, a healthcare provider starts gathering the patient’s insurance and financial details. Computerized eligibility validation technologies are now being utilized for provider and patient benefit (Lim et al., 2020). They help the health profession to understand how they will be compensated for certain services. In the second phase of revenue cycle management, a procedure known as charge capture, services supplied are converted into chargeable costs. As the point when a hospital billing code is applied to the request, this revenue management cycle stage is essential to the claim’s procedure. Lastly, the provider payment will be on its way, and the out-of-pocket amount will be displayed for the client to reimburse once the patient’s insurance has approved their claim. Patients may access and pay their invoices in their patient portal with an automated billing system. Overall, these steps are essential in effectively managing a revenue cycle. Should an organization take a discount of 1.5/10 n/30 on a $ 9,000 invoice or simply pay the bill when due? The company should accept the discount. If the firm pays in 10 days (1.5/10) and receives the reduction, it will save $135 ($9,000 x 0.015) for paying 20 days before the deadline. When the payment is paid 20 days later, there will be no savings. However, there will be an expenditure of $135. For example, if a commercial firm obtains short-term financing at a high-interest rate, say 12% per year, or at a monthly interest rate of 1%, the corporation can save much. Consequently, the organization should take the discount to save money, preventing losses. Chapter 17 1. What is capital structure? Why should healthcare organizations care about it? The amount of capital backing a business, financing its assets, and supporting its activities is referred to as the capital structure (Wheeler et al., 2000). Additionally, it might display capital expenditures and acquisitions made by a company that may have an impact on the bottom line of the company (Amusawi et al., 2019). Decisions about the capital structure have an impact on the firm’s value and profitability since they raise it due to the present value of tax savings through the usage of debt (Wheeler et al., 2000). This might logically indicate that organizations should employ 100% debt to increase their value (Wheeler et al., 2000). Today, the majority of hospitals, particularly non-profit hospitals, have kept their levels of debt essentially steady. Consequently, healthcare systems lack simple access to equity. To maintain access to debt markets, healthcare systems’ according to Wheeler et al., (2000), capital structure policies will help the healthcare systems to focus on maintaining high bond ratings and strong investment returns. 2. What is equity financing in the not-for-profit sector? Equity financing describes the process by which businesses raise money by selling shares to investors. The fact that the money obtained by the business doesn’t have to be repaid is a benefit of equity financing (Gilchrist et al., 2021). The raised monies are not refunded to shareholders if the business fails. Equity financing for non-profits refers to instances where the company makes money through the stock market and uses that money to donate to causes that advance the welfare of the local populace (What Is Equity Financing, n.d.). 3. How do investors make money on an organization’s stock? Dividends and capital growth are the two main ways that stockholders can profit from their investments. Dividends are payments made in cash from a company’s profits (Merritt, 2019). Stockholders will receive $5 for each share they possess if the corporation has 1,000 shares in the hands of “investors” and the corporation announces a $5,000 dividend (Merritt, 2019). The rise in share price is known as capital appreciation. If an organization sells a share to an investor for $10 and the stock goes on to be worth $11, the investor has made a profit of $1 (Merritt, 2019). However, Merritt (2019) continues that that profit only exists on paper and is therefore susceptible to loss unless the shareholder secures it by trading the share. 4. What is the difference between common and preferred stock? The distinctions between preferred and ordinary stock are numerous. The fundamental distinction is that stockholders of ordinary stock typically receive one vote per share owned, whereas preferred stock typically does not (Hayes, 2020). More investors are familiar with ordinary stock than preferred stock. Both kinds of stock give investors a stake in a company and can be used as instruments to try to profit from the firm’s potential future achievements (Hayes, 2020). 5. What is cost of capital? The minimal rate of returns or profitability that a business must achieve before creating value is known as the cost of capital (Hayes, 2021). The accounting department of an organization computes it to assess financial risk and determine whether an investment is appropriate (Hayes, 2021). Cost of capital is an essential economic and accounting instrument that estimates the costs of investment opportunities and, in doing so, maximizes possible investments (Hayes, 2021). The opportunity cost of investing money in a particular business venture or investment is correlated with the cost of capital. References Amusawi, E. G., Almagtome, A. H., & Shaker, A. S. (2019). Impact of lean accounting information on the financial performance of the healthcare institutions: A case study. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 14(2), 589-399. Gilchrist, D., Etheridge, D., & Liu, Z. F. (2021). Earnings Management in Australian Not-for-Profit Disability Services. Available at SSRN 3864804. Lim, S. C., Macias, A. J., & Moeller, T. (2020). Intangible assets and capital structure. Journal of Banking & Finance, 118, 105873. Sabirov, O. S., Berdiyarov, B. T., Yusupov, A. S., Absalamov, A. T., & Berdibekov, A. I. U. (2021). Improving Ways to Increase the Attitude of the Investment Environment. REVISTA GEINTEC-GESTAO INOVACAO E TECNOLOGIAS, 11(2), 1961-1975. Shair, F., Shaorong, S., Kamran, H. W., Hussain, M. S., Nawaz, M. A., & Nguyen, V. C. (2021). Assessing the efficiency and total factor productivity growth of the banking industry: do environmental concerns matters? Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 28(16),

American History

Historically, though various cultures clang with each other, some contribute to enabling a sound economy. For instance, the two documents are clear that individuals met to form European colonies in North America under various circumstances. They had different ideas, as explained in the two documents through their origin and some of the agreements which were settled together. According to the document letters from an American farmer (1782) letter 111 what is an American by J. Hector St. John de Crevecoeur, it is clear that people met to improve the economic status of the country (King 338). For instance, the documents state that the plants and hunger had taken a large portion of the area to the extent of mowing down. After some time and cooperation, plants in the country flourished, thus eradicating poverty and improvement of various industries.

IT Management

A simple data analysis and presentation using excel functions and chart features highlight more activities on the site from people living in the U.S., mobile phones users and organic traffic. Based on this, I would advise the Chief Executive Officer in line with the following recommendations in every category of the data: Location Based on this factor, the results indicate that United States residents were the majority of visitors at 301 of the total. Japan, France and Germany followed at a distance with 64, 52 and 51 visitors, with Brazil coming last with 32. The graphical representation and summary of activities are as below:

Child Development Theories

The Psychology of the development of children has attracted the attention of several scholars and this raises significant debates in academic discourse. The early strategies of humanity play a critical role in the formation of character and behaviors in human beings. The learning theory examines how other individuals in the formative stages of child development influence its attitudes and behavior while psychosexual development connects child development to personality development and conflict resolution among other competencies. The cognitive development theory, on the other hand, explains the knowledge acquisition process of a child from an early age. Scholars who subscribe to the socio-cultural approach examine the impact of the interaction of children with significant others as they grow up. The various theories enable the analysis of the various factors that determine the psychological and behavioral states of human development. Modern psychologists must positively critique these theories based on their observation of child development

Therapeutic Modalities

Proper psychotherapies in the vastly evolving world come with various clinical approaches highly utilized by professional counselors to achieve their works efficiently. Based on the analysis of the SAGE encyclopedia, there are different approaches to counseling. Although they are different approaches to counseling techniques, the main role of psychotherapy includes solving the ever-increasing problems of different people in the developed world. The process of counseling and theories bases its superiority on human functionalities. There are extensive variables to consider while undertaking counseling procedures. The main problem affecting the proper execution of the counseling process in the developed world include variances in clients’ accounts and circumstances, counselor’s communications techniques, diversifications of clients, and counselor’s mood (Nusse & Clevers, 2017). Therefore, the best fit of counseling theories and approaches depends on the counselor’s ability to examine the client’s histories and situations, understand appropriate therapist’s communication techniques, invigilate their moods, and comprehend the differences between different clients. There are different theoretical approaches in conducting psychotherapy. The research centers its superiority on systemic and psychoanalytic counseling theories unveiling their importance, strengths, and their weaknesses.