Normative conformity involves changing one’s behavior in order to fit in with the group. In many cases, looking to the rest of the group for clues for how we should behave can actually be helpful. Other people might have greater knowledge or experience than we do, so following their lead can actually be instructive.
In some instances, we conform to the expectations of the group in order to avoid looking foolish. This tendency can become particularly strong in situations where we are not quite sure how to act or where the expectations are ambiguous.
conformity, the process whereby people change their beliefs, attitudes, actions, or perceptions to more closely match those held by groups to which they belong or want to belong or by groups whose approval they desire. Conformity has important social implications and continues to be actively researched.
Informational conformity happens when a person lacks the knowledge and looks to the group for information and direction.
Identification occurs when people conform to what is expected of them based on their social roles. Zimbardo’s famous Stanford Prison Experiment is a good example of people altering their behavior in order to fit into their expected roles. However, the experiment has come under intense scrutiny in recent years.6
Compliance involves changing one’s behavior while still internally disagreeing with the group.
Internalization occurs when we change our behavior because we want to be like another person.
Cognitive consistency is a psychological theory that proposes that humans are motivated by inconsistencies and a desire to change them. Cognitive inconsistencies cause imbalance in individuals and the tension from this imbalance motivates people to alter these inconsistencies. The tension arises when thoughts conflict with each other and this tension creates a motivation to change and correct the inconsistency. When this tension is reduced balance is achieved in the individual.
The three main components of this theory state that people anticipate consistency, inconsistencies create imbalance and dissonance in individuals, and that tension motivates the individuals to create consistency in order to achieve balance.
“Precontemplation is the stage at which there is no intention to change behavior in the foreseeable future. Many individuals in this stage are unaware or under-aware of their problems.” Some people call this phase “denial.”
“Contemplation is the stage in which people are aware that a problem exists and are seriously thinking about overcoming it but have not yet made a commitment to take action.” Many people in this stage can be described as ambivalent. They want to improve their blood sugar, but are not yet ready to cut back on eating sweets.
The Preparation stage can be considered the information gathering and planning stage. The preparation stage is the most important. Fifty percent of the people who attempt behavior change and skip this stage will relapse within 21 days, according to Prochaska in his book, Changing for Good.
“Action is the stage in which individuals modify their behavior, experiences, or environment in order to overcome their problems. Action involves the most overt behavioral changes and requires considerable commitment of time and energy.” During the action stage, one implements the plans developed and information gathered in the preparation stage.
“Maintenance is the stage in which people work to prevent relapse and consolidate the gains attained during action. For addictive behaviors this stage extends from six months to an indeterminate period past the initial action.”
he investment model of commitment processes is rooted in interdependence theory and emerged from the broader scientific zeitgeist of the 1960s and 1970s that sought to understand seemingly irrational persistence in social behavior. The investment model was developed originally to move social psychology beyond focusing only on positive affect in predicting persistence in a close interpersonal relationship. As originally tested, the investment model holds that commitment to a target is influenced by three independent factors: satisfaction level, quality of alternatives, and investment size. Commitment, in turn, is posited to mediate the effects of these three bases of dependence on behavior, including persistence. Commitment is presumed to bring about persistence by influencing a host of relationship maintenance phenomena. The investment model has proven to be remarkably generalizable across a range of commitment targets, including commitment toward both interpersonal (e.g., abusive relationships, friendships) and non-interpersonal (e.g., job, sports participation, support for public policies) targets. Empirical support for the investment model is presented as well as a review of recent applications of the model and a proposed extension of it.
Women tend to have a higher frequency of identity problems during and after a divorce. Many women are focused on being superb mothers and wives during the marriage then face the sudden loss of the second self-identity. Overcoming this can turn out to be an enormously positive thing, although it almost never feels that way going through it. Creating that new self-identity can lead to becoming an emotionally and physically healthier person.
Women also tend to hold on to the stress of divorce longer than men. Scientists trace this to a sudden decrease in standard of living which can go on long after the divorce is final.
Women have similar physical health responses to a divorce as men do, but they have slightly different rates.
For example, both men and women see an increase in heart attacks. Women who have been divorced once see an increase in their chance by 24%, according to a study by Matthew Dupre of Duke University. Women who have been divorced twice or more see an increase in their risk of heart attack by 77%. Effects other than heart attacks are pretty much the same as men. Dramatic weight gain or loss, weakened immune systems, digestion issues and metabolic problems.
The instinct theory of aggression, as put forward by Sigmund Freud, posits that aggression is an innate biological drive that is in the same category as the drives that are related to sex or hunger.
They are instinctual and automatic, we are born with these drives and must adapt as a means to control them. Aggression is used as a means of maintaining and defending territory: basically as a means of survival both in humans and in animals. Human society regards these traits as elements that need to be controlled and channeled for the good of society so that we don’t descend into animalistic chaos.
he Authoritarian Personality Type
According to Adorno’s theory, the elements of the Authoritarian personality type are:
Blind allegiance to conventional beliefs about right and wrong
Respect for submission to acknowledged authority
Belief in aggression toward those who do not subscribe to conventional thinking, or who are different
A negative view of people in general – i.e. the belief that people would all lie, cheat or steal if given the opportunity
A need for strong leadership which displays uncompromising power
A belief in simple answers and polemics – i.e. The media controls us all or The source of all our problems is the loss of morals these days.
Resistance to creative, dangerous ideas. A black and white worldview.
A tendency to project one’s own feelings of inadequacy, rage and fear onto a scapegoated group
A preoccupation with violence and sex
Researchers have suggested that contact between groups can reduce prejudice because it reduces feelings of anxiety (people may be anxious about interacting with members of a group they have had little contact with). Contact may also reduce prejudice because it increases empathy and helps people to see things from the other group’s perspective. According to psychologist Thomas Pettigrew and his colleagues, contact with another group allows people “to sense how outgroup members feel and view the world.”
Psychologist John Dovidio and his colleagues suggested that contact may reduce prejudice because it changes how we categorize others. One effect of contact can be decategorization, which involves seeing someone as an individual, rather than as only a member of their group. Another outcome of contact can be recategorization, in which people no longer see someone as part of a group that they’re in conflict with, but rather as a member of a larger, shared group.
Another reason why contact is beneficial is because it fosters the formation of friendships across group lines.
Temperamental positive affect (PA) refers to a biologically based proneness to experience positive emotions . Children with higher levels of PA are more inclined to experience and express cheerful emotions. PA is not simply equivalent to low negative affect (NA). PA has a connection with extraversion, whereas NA is linked with neuroticism in adults . Moreover, PA is different from NA evolutionarily and neurologically. From an evolutionary perspective, PA and NA are thought to be associated with different behavioral systems to carry out distinct evolutionary tasks . Specifically, PA is strongly connected with the approach-oriented Behavioral Facilitation System that orientates individuals to experience pleasure and reward. In contrast, passive NA is closely tied to the withdrawal-oriented Behavioral Inhibition System that helps people to avoid undesirable outcomes.
Prosocial behaviors refer to voluntary behaviors that can benefit others, and include helping, sharing, comforting, cooperating, donating, being fair and volunteerin. These behaviors are motivated by empathy, an emotional reaction that enables people to understand and share the feelings of others and play an important role in the development of social and academic competence . For example, kindergarteners with higher levels of prosocial behaviors tend to have more mutual friendships and higher levels of peer acceptance, and subsequently have better classroom participation and school achievement . The explanations for individual differences in prosocial behaviors could be social, evolutionary or biological. Social and situational factors that can influence prosocial behaviors include the interpretation of others’ needs, the relationship to others, the reciprocal altruism, the number of bystanders, the normative pressure to help, and the evaluation of the cost to help
Time Series Analysis
The term time series refers to a sequential order of values of a variable, known as a trend, at equal time intervals. Using patterns, an organization can predict the demand for its products and services for the projected time.
In cases where the time series lacks significant trends, smoothing techniques can be used. They eliminate a random variation from the historical demand. It helps in identifying patterns and demand levels to estimate future demand. The most common methods used in smoothing demand forecasting techniques are the simple moving average method and the weighted moving average method.
Also known as the leading indicators approach, researchers use this method to speculate future trends based on current developments. When the past events are considered to predict future events, they act as leading indicators.
The experimental method involves the manipulation of variables to establish cause and effect relationships. The key features are controlled methods and the random allocation of participants into controlled and experimental groups. An experiment is an investigation in which a hypothesis is scientifically tested
Honestly report data, results, methods and procedures, and publication status. Do not fabricate, falsify, or misrepresent data.
Strive to avoid bias in experimental design, data analysis, data interpretation, peer review, personnel decisions, grant writing, expert testimony, and other aspects of research.
Keep your promises and agreements; act with sincerity; strive for consistency of thought and action.
Avoid careless errors and negligence; carefully and critically examine your own work and the work of your peers. Keep good records of research activities.
Share data, results, ideas, tools, resources. Be open to criticism and new ideas.
Respect for Intellectual Property:
Honor patents, copyrights, and other forms of intellectual property. Do not use unpublished data, methods, or results without permission. Give credit where credit is due. Never plagiarize.
person perception and stereotypes,
Learning more about how people think and process information not only helps researchers gain a deeper understanding of how the human brain works, but it allows psychologists to develop new ways of helping people deal with psychological difficulties.
Cognition always pursues a definite aim, which can be set by practical considerations as well as by “idle curiosity”; but once this aim is reached, the cognitive process has come to an end. Thought, on the contrary, has neither an end nor an aim outside itself, and it does not even produce results.
the way you think and feel about someone or something He has a positive/negative attitude about the changes
Attitude is structured into three components: affect, behavior, and cognition.
In this model, we consider there to be an “attitude object” that our attitudes and behaviors are directed at.
The affective component of attitude refers to how we feel about something. It’s often our initial reaction and might be positive or negative, such as a fear-based reaction or an excitement-based reaction.
It’s important to separate affect from cognition, where affect is what we feel and cognition is what we think.
Our affective responses might be driven by deep-seeded memories or experiences that shape our feelings about things. For example, our negative past experiences with certain animals may inform our current feelings toward them.
Some examples include:
Being excited about a song because it reminds us of a loved one.
Being repulsed by a smell because we have associated it with a bad memory.
Being afraid of a lion because we’ve never seen one before.
The behavioral component of attitude refers to our intentions, or what we would do.
It can be informed by our attitude or cognition. For example, if we’re afraid of something (our affect), we might run (our behavior). Similarly, if we
However, the behavioral component is generally understood to be malleable. If a marketer does a good job at marketing a product, they can influence the behavior so that it is favorable (i.e. that the person purchases the product).
The behavior is also often influenced by the ‘cognitive’ component, discussed next.
Our cognitive component is what we think about something. It’s what happens when we pause and really think hard about it.
Cognitive and affective components are interrelated, but don’t always overlap.
For example, we might think it’s a bad idea to take a holiday, even though we have positive feelings about it, because it’s too expensive. That’s because we’re overriding our impulsive feelings in order to make decisions based on logic.
(i) Learning attitudes by Association:
A positive attitude towards the subject is learned through positive association between a teacher and a student in school. In other words, students often develop a liking for a particular subject because of the teacher.
(ii) Learning attitudes by being Rewarded or Punished:
If an individual is praised for showing a particular attitude, chances are high that she/he will develop that attitude further. For example, if a teenager does yogasanas regularly and gets the honour of being Miss Good Health in her school, she may develop a positive attitude towards yoga and health in general.
(iii) Learning attitudes through modeling (observing others):
We learn attitudes through association and through reward and punishment. For example, children form a respectful attitude towards elders by observing that their parents show respect for elders and are appreciated for it.
(iv) Learning attitudes through group or cultural norms:
Learning attitudes through group or cultural norms is through association, reward or punishment and modeling. For example, offering money, sweets, fruit and flowers in a place of worship is a normative behaviour in some religions. When individuals see that such behaviour is shown by others and is socially approved, they develop a positive attitude towards such behaviour.
(v) Learning through exposure to information:
With the huge amount of information that is being provided through media, both positive and negative attitudes are being formed. By reading the biographies of self-actualised person, an individual may develop a positive attitude towards hard work