1.  

     

    Is There Correlation Between Attitude of Students Towards Mathematics and Their Performance

    Students affiliate
    Professors affiliate
    Institutions affiliate
    Course affiliate
    Date

     

     

    Abstract
    The goal of this study is to see if there is an association between students’ mathematical mindsets and their actual mathematical abilities. The study uses a survey research design and surveyed 180 10th graders. Students. School officials collected data on students’ arithmetic abilities, while teachers measured their mathematical disposition using the Fennema-Sherman Scale gauge students’ feelings about the subject. There were eight sub-sections on the survey form, covering topics such as mathematical confidence, mathematical anxiety, mathematical drive, a mathematically useful scale for teachers and parents, and mathematical achievement expectations. Attitudes toward mathematics were found to be positively related to pupils’ overall mathematical performance.
    Background
    A student’s own attitude and enthusiasm in a subject matter is sometimes the most important, yet unseen, aspect in determining how well they do academically in that topic. However, as educators, we are rarely given the resources we need to significantly improve student achievement. Our students’ interest, rather than merely motivating them to take an inactive role as passive recipients of knowledge without contributing to their own education. Further, students’ perspectives on the subjects they’re learning about are correlated with how engaged they are in the learning process. This study aims to further our understanding of how students’ mathematical mindsets affect their abilities in the classroom.
    Introduction
    The perspectives of the students have been given a lot of consideration by the educators. Students who have a favorable disposition toward mathematics are more likely to place a high priority on their mathematics education, which may lead to superior academic results. Students who have a favorable disposition toward mathematics are more likely to place a high priority on their mathematics education. Numerous studies have been conducted on the effect that students’ mental approaches to the topic of mathematics have on their overall performance in the course. The findings regarding this connection, on the other hand, are not completely consistent. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to characterize students’ perspectives on mathematics and investigate how such perspectives relate to students’ performance in mathematics. Additionally, this research will investigate how students’ perspectives on mathematics relate to their performance in mathematics. As a consequence of this, educators are obligated to conduct thorough assessments of their pupils’ perspectives on mathematics and to make available the tools and materials required to assist their students in developing a more positive attitude toward the topic.

    Statement of the problem
    Students’ interest in mathematics is steadily dropping, both in elementary and secondary education and in higher education. On the other hand, the percentage of students who are unsuccessful in mathematics continues to rise. Students’ participation in classwork did not increase as planned. According to my observations, the participation of the students has a direct correlation to how well those students do in school. In addition, students’ interest in the material to be covered in class is essential if they are to be engaged in its study. In this light, the study’s primary objective is to determine how these students’ ideas about math relate to how well they do in the subject.
    Objectives
    The study’s goal was to investigate how students’ mindsets towards mathematics affected their grades.
    Hypothesis
    Student math attitudes and abilities are unrelated.
    Analyzing the Literature
    Definition and meaning of Attitudes
    The fundamental psychological leanings of a person are reflected in the attitude that they have toward any given topic. The way an individual thinks and feels influences not only how they make decisions but also how they respond to external stimuli such as difficulties and successes. The emotional condition of a person, in addition to their thoughts, beliefs, and values, all contribute to the formation of their attitude. A person’s attitude can be defined as the degree to which they are predisposed to respond favorably or unfavorably to an object, person, or circumstance on the basis of their own unique collection of ideas, sentiments, desires, customs, and learning experiences as well as their own set of anxieties (Mazana et al.,2019).
    Attitudes towards Mathematics and Performance
    Numerous studies have demonstrated that a student’s mentality toward mathematics is directly tied to their level of success in the subject area of mathematics (Mazana et al.,2019). It was established that the four most important elements that influence students’ attitudes toward mathematics are parental influences, the support of instructors, instructional methodologies, and learning opportunities. In a similar vein, the perspective that a student takes toward mathematics is one of the many significant elements that contribute to how effectively they learn mathematics.
    Attitude formation
    Attitude formation, as defined, is the transition from indifference to enthusiasm or hostility toward an object. there are four recognized mechanisms for attitude formation:
    Simply being exposed to something makes you feel more positively about it, and this effect can be reinforced through repeated exposure, which can then lead to a change in your attitude.
    Firsthand Knowledge: Beliefs and values learned through personal experience are more likely to be firmly entrenched and to influence actions (Hagan et al.,2020). People are also more likely to look for evidence to back up their preexisting beliefs.
    The vast majority of people’s attitudes are thought to have been programmed in during early childhood, according to the findings of both operant and classical conditioning.
    Meaning that upbringing is more responsible for shaping one’s outlook than genetics.
    Rewarding someone for having a certain attitude in the hopes that they will continue to hold onto it is an example of operant conditioning, a technique used to teach people how to think a certain way (Hagan et al.,2020).
    By bringing about a reaction that the stimulus never elicited before, Classical Conditioning is a sort of learning.
    Observational learning (or forming an opinion based on how others are treated) is the fourth type of learning (Hagan et al.,2020). And then it gives you the green light to copy that action.
    Attitude formation is an inexorable part of the human experience. the reason we form opinions is that they serve us very well.
    The Fennema-Sherman Measure of Mathematics Attitude
    There is a well-known survey called the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitude Scale. that is employed for the purpose of determining the attitudes of pupils toward mathematical topics (Hagan et al,.2020). The following eight categories of this scale provide the technique for evaluating the opinions of pupils towards a wide range of key topics: Student perspectives on the following aspects of mathematics:
    S.N. Scale Definitions
    1. Mentality for Mathematical Progression; How optimistic or pessimistic kids are about their futures if they excel in mathematics
    2. self-assurance in mathematical study; A person’s assurance in their own mathematical aptitude. Not meant to gauge feelings of worry, perplexity, boredom, or pleasure.
    3.Skepticism and Fear of Mathematical Problems: Quantifies the emotional and physiological distress associated with mental arithmetic tasks (Capuno et al.,2019). Neither meant to gauge trust nor pleasure in mathematics
    4. Getting Motivated for Math; One’s level of engagement can be measured on a continuum from complete disinterest to enthusiastic pursuit of new challenges (Capuno et al.,2019). Not a test of engagement or satisfaction regarding the field of mathematics.
    5. Traditional Male Preference for Mathematics; Students’ perceptions on whether mathematics is a male-dominated, female-dominated, or gender-neutral field.
    6. A Scale for Evaluating Teachers; What the student believes their math teacher thinks about them as pupils, based on what the teacher has told them.
    7. Parenting index; How much the student’s mother or father loves about them and how confident they are in their abilities as a learner.
    8. Practicality of Mathematics; attitudes held by pupils with regard to math’s relevance in the here-and-now and into the foreseeable future.
    Fennema and Sherman’s aforementioned subscales were used to gauge pupils’ attitudes toward mathematics in this study (Capuno et al.,2019). Tinio’s research was conducted with the intention of assessing the mathematical performance of students in the classroom as well as assessing the students’ mathematical performance in light of their perspectives (Capuno et al.,2019). The findings of this study led the authors to the conclusion that a comprehensive picture of student involvement in the classroom requires consideration of all three dimensions: behavioral, emotional, and cognitive. A student’s level of academic success can be affected by their thoughts, actions, and feelings. Because of this, the current study is being conducted to ascertain the relevance of the viewpoints held by mathematicians in Nepal with regards to the development of their skills.
    Procedure for Conducting Research
    To participate in the survey study project aimed at students in the city of Cairo, a total of 180 students were selected using a method called simple random sampling. Of the approximately 1125 students that attended the sampled schools.
    Data collection tools
    The 38-item Fennema–Sherman Scale of Mathematics Attitude utilized in order to assess the level of understanding among the perspectives on the subject of mathematics. This survey questionnaire form was utilized in order to collect data from a representative sample of high school students because it was seen as a reliable and valid method for gauging students’ perspectives on mathematics. The data that was collected from this survey questionnaire form can be found in the following paragraphs. There are eight subheadings that make up the attitude scale. Mathematical success attitudes; mathematical learning confidence; mathematical learning anxiety; mathematical learning motivation; mathematical learning utility; mathematical learning teacher’s scale; mathematical learning parent’s scale Male dominance in mathematics; ratings of teachers and parents; the subject’s practicality; The field of mathematics is traditionally considered to be a male stronghold. Further, the administration of the school evaluated the kids’ aggregated scores on standardized examinations to evaluate the students’ overall performance.
    Data collection and Analysis Process
    In order to get an idea of how our students feel about mathematics, i gave the The Fennema-Sherman Measure of Mathematics Attitude to a cross-section of our student population that was supposed to be typical of all of our students. When evaluating student performance, the administration of the school compiled the test scores of a representative sample of students. By conducting an examination of the Major and Minor Correlations components contained on the student questionnaire and the exam, the researchers were able to assess the extent to which students’ attitudes toward mathematics were related to their overall success in the subject.
    Analysis, Discussion, and Concluding Remarks Based on Data
    In particular, the focus of the study was on the eight subscales of the attitude scale in order to discover how they relate to students’ overall attitudes as well as how those attitudes relate to the students’ actual mathematics performance. This was done in order to find out how students’ attitudes affect their overall mathematics performance. Shown below:
    relationship between math confidence and achievement
    The table reveals that at the level of significance of.01, the correlation between students’ expectations of their own mathematical achievement and their actual mathematical performance is 0.813. This allows us to observe how students’ expectations for themselves and their math grades are related. This is a reference to the independent variable known as “beliefs about one’s own chances of succeeding in mathematics,” and the fact that “performance in mathematics” is positively connected to a large extent leads us to draw the conclusion that students who perceive themselves to be successful in mathematics have, on average, superior performance in mathematics.
    See the table below.

     

    Attitude towards success in mathematics
    performance

    Attitude towards success in math
    Pearson correlation
    1
    .813

    Sig.2 tailed

    .00

    N
    180
    180

    performance
    Pearson correlated
    .813
    1

    Sig.2 tailed
    .00

     

    N
    180
    180

    At the.01 level, there is a statistically significant correlation (2-tailed).
    Performances and Students’ Perceptions of Their Own Math Ability
    The following table displays the relationship between student confidence in mathematics and academic achievement.

     

    Confidence in learning mathematics
    performance

     

     

    Confidence in learning mathematics
    Pearson correlation
    1
    .903

    Sig.2 tailed

    .00

    N
    180
    180

    performance
    Pearson correlated
    .903
    1

    Sig.2 tailed
    .00

     

    N
    180
    180

    At the.01 level, there is a statistically significant correlation (2-tailed).
    There is a significant correlation between the level of mathematical self-assurance possessed by students and the quality of their mathematical performance (0.903, p0.01). They found a strong correlation between students’ perceptions of their own mathematical abilities and their actual mathematical performance. This led them to the conclusion that those students who feel the most confident in their mathematical abilities tend to do the best academically in the subject. Meaningful differences in how people feel about found a strong correlation between students’ perceptions of their own mathematical abilities and their actual mathematical performance.
    Relationship between ‘math anxiety’ and academic outcomes
    The following table shows how students’ perceptions of their own mathematical anxiety relate to how well they perform in the subject.

     

    Mathematics anxiety
    performance

    Mathematics anxiety
    Pearson correlation
    1
    -621

    Sig.2 tailed

    .00

    N
    180
    180

    performance
    Pearson correlated
    -621
    1

    Sig.2 tailed
    .00

     

    N
    180
    180

    At the.01 level, there is a statistically significant correlation (2-tailed).
    The data presented in the table reveals that there is a statistically significant negative link relationship between students’ self-reported levels of math anxiety and actual arithmetic ability (r=-0.621, p.01). This is demonstrated by the fact that the table contains the following information: A variable that may be described by the following factors is referred to as mathematical phobia: found that there is a negative link between mathematical anxiety and performance, which led us to the conclusion that higher levels of mathematical anxiety indicate lower ability in mathematics; mathematical output.
    Motivation in Mathematics and Academic Achievement
    Table 1 below illustrates the connection between students’ perceptions of their own potential for motivation in mathematics and their actual levels of mathematical achievement.

     

     

    Motivation in mathematics
    performance

    Motivation in mathematics
    Pearson correlation
    1
    .772

    Sig.2 tailed

    .00

    N
    180
    180

    performance
    Pearson correlated
    .772
    1

    Sig.2 tailed
    .00

     

    N
    180
    180

    At the.01 level, there is a statistically significant correlation (2-tailed).
    data show that there is no statistically significant difference between groups at the 0.05 level is a statistically significant association between the students’ perceptions of their degree of ‘Motivation in Mathematics’ and the grades they receive in mathematics. We find a strong positive correlation between student motivation and mathematics achievement, which leads us to infer that pupils who are organically driven to learn mathematics are more likely to be successful in the subject. This is in reference to the motivating math variable, which we found.
    Performances on the ” Male Dominance in Mathematics ” and their correlation
    The table below displays the relationship between students’ ratings on a scale of how they feel about Mathematics as a masculine domain and their grades in the subject.

     

    Mathematics as a male domain scale
    performance

    Mathematics as a male domain scale
    Pearson correlation
    1
    .103

    Sig.2 tailed

    .00

    N
    180
    180

    performance
    Pearson correlated
    .103
    1

    Sig.2 tailed
    .00

     

    N
    180
    180

    At the.01 level, there is a statistically significant correlation (2-tailed).
    There is a substantial correlation, as shown by the data in the table, between the ratings that students gave on the ” Male Dominance in Mathematics ” and the grades that they received in mathematics. are positively connected, leading us to the opposite conclusion from that obtained by Cox (2010), namely that female students tend to perform poorly when compared to male students in mathematics, regardless of whether they think of math as a guy thing, female, or neutral domain. The “Mathematics as a Female Domain Scale” is positively correlated with mathematical achievement.
    Relationship between teachers’ evaluations and students’ outcomes
    The table that follows illustrates how the ratings that students give their teachers on the Teacher Scale connect with how well they do academically in class.

    Teachers scale
    performance

    Teachers scale
    Pearson correlation
    1
    .692

    Sig.2 tailed

    .00

    N
    180
    180

    performance
    Pearson correlated
    .692
    1

    Sig.2 tailed
    .00

     

    N
    180
    180

    There is a statistically significant association at the.01 level (2-tailed).
    According to the findings that are provided in the table, there is a correlation that is statistically significant between the ratings that students give their teachers on the “Teacher Scale” and the grades that they receive in mathematics (r =.693, p.01). Students are more likely to succeed in mathematics if they have a positive attitude toward their instructor, as indicated by the score, which confirms the finding indicating the variable has a positive correlation with the independent variable “Teacher Scale” and performance in mathematics. Additionally, the score indicates indicating the variable has a positive correlation with the independent variable “Teacher Scale” and overall satisfaction with the classroom environment. This discovery was presented in a paper that was published in the journal Educational Researcher.
    Parental involvement and student achievement: a correlational study
    This data is presented in the table below ,a visual representation of the association between the students’ perceptions of their parents and their levels of academic achievement.

    Teachers scale
    performance

    Teachers scale
    Pearson correlation
    1
    .220

    Sig.2 tailed

    .00

    N
    180
    180

    performance
    Pearson correlated
    .220
    1

    Sig.2 tailed
    .00

     

    N
    180
    180

    There is a statistically significant association at the.01 level (2-tailed).
    The scores that kids give their parents on the “attitudes toward parents scale” have a correlation of.220 with the students’ grades in mathematics, which is statistically significant at the level of significance of.01 (see table). According to the data I came up with, the degree of association that exists between the variable “Parents Scale” and mathematical performance is relatively minimal. This leads us to the conclusion that a student’s perception of the degree to which his or her parents are involved, supportive, and have faith in the student’s abilities has very little to do with a student’s actual achievement in mathematics. This is because a student’s perception of the degree to which his or her parents are involved, supportive, and have faith in the student’s abilities is based on the (2020).
    Analysis of the relationship between the ” The Scale of Mathematical Usefulness ” and students’ results
    The following table shows a link between the evaluations students gave on the usefulness scale for mathematics and the grades that they obtained. This correlation may be seen by looking at the following table.

     

     

    Teachers scale
    performance

    Teachers scale
    Pearson correlation
    1
    .540

    Sig.2 tailed

    .00

    N
    180
    180

    performance
    Pearson correlated
    .540
    1

    Sig.2 tailed
    .00

     

    N
    180
    180

    There is a statistically significant association at the.01 level (2-tailed).
    There is a considerable link between the students’ ratings on the ” Measurement of Mathematical Value ” and their grades in mathematics, as shown by the data that is shown in the table. The threshold of significance for this correlation is 0.01%. A value of.540 is assigned to this connection. The moderate The Mathematical Performance and the Mathematics Usefulness Scale leads us to the conclusion students’ hopes and fears for the future of mathematics utility have an impact on their academic success in the subject. This is because students’ perceptions of mathematics’ present utility tend to be more positive than their perceptions of mathematics’ future utility.
    Conclusion
    As a result of the research and the debate that was just presented, we are able to come to the conclusion that the level of mathematical accomplishment that students have is significantly associated with the attitudes that they personally have toward the topic. Before teachers may anticipate seeing increased achievement goals in mathematics education, for students to have a favorable attitude toward the subject. Because of this, it is our responsibility as math teachers to assist students in developing an emotional connection to the topic, as this is what will lead to a more in-depth comprehension as well as increased mathematical abilities.
    There are two different channels through which a student’s perspective on mathematics can influence their overall academic achievement. If you go into the subject with a good attitude about math, you might do better in it, and if you do well in it, you might feel even better about math.it’s possible for a student’s level of success in arithmetic to be influenced by how they feel about the topic overall. The way a student thinks about mathematics may shed light on how highly they regard the subject, how much they enjoy it, how driven they are, and how much they stress over it. The most effective strategy for preventing pupils from acquiring a distaste for mathematics that will last a lifetime is for adults to become involved as early as possible.
    The use of digital game-based learning could be beneficial to the attitudes that people have toward mathematics. When students are given the opportunity to learn mathematics in a manner that appeals to them, they are more likely to demonstrate a favorable attitude toward the subject and to achieve higher levels of academic success.

    Implications
    This study is consistent in a number of different respects, as may be shown in the following: To begin, the findings of the study have apparent repercussions for mathematics teachers, who are recommended to encourage growth mindsets in their pupils as a means of improving their students’ overall academic performance. Second, the findings of this study give policymakers irrefutable evidence that a range of reward, awareness, and remedial programs can assist students in developing the positive attitudes and perseverance essential to being successful in school.

    References

    Capuno, R., Necesario, R., Etcuban, J. O., Espina, R., Padillo, G., & Manguilimotan, R. (2019). Attitudes, Study Habits, and Academic Performance of Junior High School Students in Mathematics. International Electronic Journal of Mathematics Education, 14(3), 547-561.
    Ekperi, P., Onwuka, U., & Nyejirime, W. (2019). Teachers’ attitude as a correlate of students’ academic performance. International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS), 3(1), 205-209.
    Hagan, J. E., Amoaddai, S., Lawer, V. T., & Atteh, E. (2020). Students’ perception towards mathematics and its effects on academic performance. Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, 8(1), 8-14.
    Mazana, Y. M., Suero Montero, C., & Olifage, C. R. (2019). Investigating students’ attitude towards learning mathematics.