Title: Analysis of Emerging Trends of Globalization
Abstract. The research paper ought to examine the modern and ancient trends of globalization and its major foundations. This paper will look into the methods and means of globalization and its effects to the sovereignty of nation states. This paper found that independent nation states are at the verge of losing their legitimacy post industrial revolution. The past colonial borders fade with the introduction of regional economic blocs. We will also look at the possible solutions to the negative effects of globalizations in form of recommendations. The study found that it is necessary to protect nation states from demises orchestrated by globalization. We also found that there exist laws and regulations though they are weak ones. These laws are either too lax to keep large corporations into check or are ignored all together
Introduction. Globalization being one of those tents at the core of prosperity of nation states is a major support for the building and other structures of diplomatic relations. Globalization works by laying a solid foundation below ground level by substituting stronger for weaker material thereby forming a basis for proper interactions. The evidence of globalization is everywhere but not everybody is in support of it. Some groups argue that globalization is responsible for many of the global problems like global warming and the production of harmful chemical, depilation of natural resources. Some groups also claim that T&Cs are taking advantage of developing states by polluting industries within their borders, logging their tropical forests and depleting their labor ,spread of diseases and plagues evidence by the current Covid -19 pandemic. Other concerns are the loss of local culture. The tendency of developed countries to interfere into the affairs of developing countries and the reduced power of governments to control economic activities is also a major concern. However, there are people who support globalization and suggest that it benefits individuals in the global community. supporters of globalizations say that it results in faster economic growth, quicker access to new technology, cheaper imports and greater competition. Supporters of globalization also argue that it will make the world economy more efficient and create hundred and millions of jobs mainly in the developing countries.
We tend to see globalization as failure of the institutions to deliver, but it is not the institutions. It is us. It is our roles that has created these institutions to help us to deal with our problems and we are witnessing some kind of irony right now because the need for globalization is greater than ever. The challenges we are facing are global in nature like growing inequalities that are feeding into radicalizations
While researching texts written about ancient and modern globalization trends literature particularly from business journals, newspapers, pamphlets and brochures.The writers often placed the globalization literature they were studying into historical context by discussing the important events in the integration world that happened in the year or period in which the literature was published however while these authors discuss journal, pamphlets , magazines and brochures I could not find one important source of information about globalizations. That is the international relations handbook/ guidelines. My goal in this paper is to bring out this source into the globalization literature discussions by connecting events after world wars literature, post industrial revolution and globalization literature during the information technology age.
To achieve this goal. I have organized my paper into four main sections two of which have sub sections. In the first section I provide accounts of in the nineteenth century globalization history, technology and historical changes, introduction of scientific new knowledge and globalization influence on culture
In the second section I discuss few literatures on new knowledge on globalization and with a third section that talks about research questions that could be answered by future versions of this paper. The fourth section discuss the importance of expanding this particular project and an appendix after the works cited that include images of some handbooks used in globalization.
We see globalization as the growth of the sizes of social systems and the increase in complexity of inter-social links. thus in certain respects, globalization may be regarded as a process, connecting the past, the present and the future- as a sort of bridge between the past and the future. The title of the topic and the composition of this paper represent this idea. Globalization is distinguished by its focus on the systematic focus on the systematic effects of the globalization process. However, the growing complexities have increased the interrelatedness among all countries. Recurrent economic and political crisis that have global repercussions demand new approaches to globalization. We believe that seeking perspective that cross organizational, geographical and cultural boundaries may aid in reducing miss understanding and diminish the negative aspects of globalization. The globe financial crisis has only emphasized the need to develop local solutions to global environments and at the same time search for global solutions of the’ local’ in particular political, economic, social and geographical context while simultaneously promoting effective change in response to pressing global issues.
Globalization in history is an analysis of the nature of global process and causes of increased integration. History of globalization draws on a special methodology and a world-system approach based on the development of the spatial links over seven periods of time starting with the Agrarian Revolution. The time periods range from the 4th Millennium BCE to the 21st Century. These links range from local and regional links to global and planetary links through to continental and intercontinental ones. This include for instance the large- scale trade in metals as early as the 4th Millennium. The evidence also includes the density and the diversity of transcontinental links, sufficient to transmit disease (bubonic Plague) from the Far East to the Atlantic in two decades (1330s- 1340s) and the comparability of some aspect of global integration prior to the great geographical discoveries with more recent periods like the spread of the Novel Corona Virus (COVID–19) pandemic from Wuhan China to the rest of the world (2019 t0 date).
Globalization began as early as the 4th thousand BCE and this paper addressed the shortcomings in previous systems that tended to underestimate the scale of spatial links in the pre-industrial era.
The history of political and economic globalization is an analysis of significant events. The way we make sense of world politics and episodes of accelerated globalization depends on our historical scripts and they tend to vary considerably. With a geopolitical analysis of key globalization events in the past, present and future. As historical sociologist in the tradition of Weber has documented, the states existence has depended on its military power, which varies in degree of its monopolization, of legitimacy and of extent of territory controlled. Geopolitical principles have determined both the Chinese dynastic, cycle and the balance of power in European history. This has been used to predict the strains that led to the collapse of the Soviet empire which was by itself a continuation of the older Russian empire. These same principles continue to apply to recent wars in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Pakistan. The use of guerilla warfare differs from conventional wars by relying specifically on geopolitical principal of promoting enemy overextension. Geopolitics encompasses both war and diplomacy, the means by which coalition among states are organized.
The rule of international law depends on a dominant coalition upheld by the favorable geopolitical conditions and the extension of bureaucracy via state penetration, but now on a world wide scale. The two critical questions to ask at this point are : “ is the world of the 21st Century moving towards a new era of international law to support universal human rights?” and “ Where does the opposition to universal human rights come from?” the answer to which is that, international rule of law in not an alternative to geopolitics , but is successful only under specific geopolitical conditions.
Contemporary globalization is fairly modern. Over the past twenty years there has been Significant amounts of developments in both communications and transport technologies with the introduction of ball carriers and container ships which has helped reduce greatly the cost of transportation and cost of trade. Recent improvements in communication especially the development of the internet and email enable people anywhere on earth to have access and distribute vast amount of information. The production and distribution of goods and services is being taken over by very large corporations and companies known as trans-national Corporations (T&Cs) the business links of T&Cs create a more integrated economy where decisions made in one country can greatly affect the people in another part of the world. International trade has given people access to good and services which they cannot produces and cheaper prices.
Some specific aspects of contemporary globalization bear on the crystallization of new distinct civilization formations. New and very intensive processes of contemporary globalization are characterized by growing inter-connectedness between economic, cultural and political processes. The full impact of these intertwined globalization process can be clearly understood within the new historical events. It is evident that today different religions are acting in a common civilization setting sometimes making the competition and struggle between religion to turn vicious -, while at the same time there is a tendency for interfaith meetings to take place rooted on the core program of modernity. Movements to reform globalization, civilization and philosophies premises has taken place in a variety of local and regional context including centers such as the African Union in Addis Ababa Ethiopia and the Europeans Union in Brussels.
Even though religion has been neglected in the study of world politics and international relations ever since the peace of Westphalia in 1648. A change that was perpetrated by the realignment in the West particularly due to the formal separation of the state and religion. We can witness its return religion through the formal eruption of Islam into the world scene as symbolized by terrorism events like 9/11 and the wars in Syria, the constant terrorism attack in Kenya that basically target the Christian majority etcetera. The war between the Islamic states and the USA has greatly assumed a heavily religious terms that cannot be responsibly questioned this provides an opportunity to take a historical discussion from new perspectives that overcomes the normal western view that religion is not important in realpolitik.
Humanity can no longer afford to be dominated by a narrowly materialistic and manipulative culture focused on ego centered, short term benefit, with no regards to the wider system that frames the existence of this planet. The values and associated behaviors of the dominant culture of the contemporary world has turned into a global system that is extended and not sustainable I the current design. If ills like global warminge to be curtailed, then cultures that influence and shape today’s world must change. Consciously moving towards a harmoniously shared system of interdependent correlated cooperative human societies focused on the shared objective of sustaining the system of life in this planet is an urgent necessity.
Globalized economics and media are continuing to change the face of culture, reducing the number of languages that humans speak. As the world becomes more integrated common tongue has become more important than ever to promote commerce and put minority languages at a distinct disadvantage (nurmburg, 2007) when people migrate from one nation to another they carry knowledge and expression of distress with them. On settling down in a new culture, their cultural diversity is likely to change and assume a degree of belonging that migration can lead to loss of cultural norm, religious and social support system. (bugra, 2004)
In conclusion it is not like the world was never globalized and interdependent. Since the Roman empire there was interconnectedness. It just a social-cultural, political and geographical type evolution. People used globolization to create market for the western products and to prevent wars but also as a vehicle for the west to instill its laws and values to the rest of the world. The world came from a borderless world where technology was not a threat to jobs into this new era where there is unbelievable change in our lives and technology. Most people believed that globalization would abolish the concept of borders, ethnicity and so on. That is reappearing and it is the real danger when it comes to globalization. Globalization could also mean global contagion and lead to warming of the globe and impedes for terrorism. Nobody thought of these in the 1990s. the current phase of globalization is very different. It is not one single phases of the local force but an international reach machine. It is globalization forged by numerous sovereign states who all wanted the same things after the end of world war 2. Access to trade. The modern relieve of globalization coined by 19th century economist David Cater is that if goods were produced where they can be made more cheaply there will be an overall increase in economic wealth. This has seen the uplifting in people from poverty in economies like china and Singapore.
To learn how globalization can transform nations. You have to understand the story of China. One place that would determine where we will be in ten years is going to be happening in Beijing. The Chinese are going to be in an increasingly powerful position. How they exercise this new found power will determine not only the fate of the region that they are in. But,whether they are going to continue to be very aggressing and inserting their authority in East Asia that could lead to integrated conflict. That will depend very much on the leadership in Beijing.
This paper seeks to answer farther questions that will help in establishing a common ground when dealing with future problems despite each state having their own self-interests to pursue. The technological revolution requires to have an enlightened approach in order to explain the process of globalization which is an international process driven by Trade, investment technology and finances. Some of the main questions to ask include’
What are the effects of globalization on culture on the environment, on political systems and on economic development, on prosperity and on human physical well-being around the world?
How old is globalization? And how do we address the issues of failure we have seen in both domestic and foreign policies on globalization like wrong distribution of income?
What exactly drives globalization?