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Vancouver Plan

The Vancouver Plan Vancouver is a city located in Canada and the third largest metropolitan area, after Toronto and Montreal with a population of almost 2.5 million people. It is a cultural and economic center of a prosperous, dynamic and rapidly growing region with its population anticipated to grow by approximately a million more people by 2050 with about half a million more homes and jobs. The area plays an important role in the region as the largest regional center for jobs at 65% of all regional office-space construction as well as a hub for new immigrants accounting to 25% of immigrants coming to the region (Plan, 2020). The implications of this growth to the region and its residents are dependent on how the city is managed. Planning plays an important role in managing growth of cities and urban areas. Among the recent plans I the area The Vancouver plan is a visionary long-range plan that was established to guide change and growth of the city to the year 2050 and beyond with the aim to unify the vision for the future land use of the city. The plan is equipped with policies that will help Vancouver become more affordable and livable with a strong economy where nature and people are able to thrive (Plan, 2020). The Vancouver plan comprise many individual plans guided by strategies on land use that gives a clear path and set a city-wide direction to achieve shared goals in an increasingly complex future. The Vancouver Plan planning approach is guided by three foundational principals which are equity where the benefits of the change and growth are distributed across neighbors with particular emphasis on equity-denied groups, resilience that involved a proactive planning aimed at future uncertainties so as to adopt, withstand, thrive and recover from shocks such as adverse climate change and earthquakes and reconciliation that aimed at forming mutual relationships of understanding and respect as well as integrate perspectives of the urban indigenous communities in the decision making and planning process. Engagement is also a key element in the planning approach. Among the key stakeholders are residents, indigenous people, regional authorities and senior governments, businesses, non-profit civic advisory bodies, community groups and other stakeholders. Such engagements are to ensure a shared vision for future diverse communities to resonate with. During the planning conversations pilot methods for the under-represented and the equity-denied groups are formulated to ensure prioritization and inclusivity in the planning process is achieved. The three principals provide a foundation to the Vancouver Plan and are interconnected in several ways throughout the plan to serve as an implementation framework, inform policy development directly and enhance the planning process. The plan set out frameworks to address the needs of every individual including reconciliation that addresses Indigenous people and settlers who have faced colonial violence and dispossession, racist and discriminatory policies as well as segregation. Reconciliation seeks to strengthen and support the healing of past wrongs and harms that continue to this day and have happened in the past. Frameworks on equity addresses the barriers in place to access of city services and opportunities as well as participation in aspects of public life including, economic, cultural social, political and spiritual activities. These frameworks intend to align processes, decisions and policies with equity frameworks to help remove and identify barriers; make all neighborhoods more inclusive to ensure all groups and individuals participate in all aspects of public life; minimize displacement to ensuring change and growth provide opportunities for organizations businesses and residents. Framework on resilience is central at ensuring overall well-being, safety and health of the residents and the city. The frameworks are focus on preparedness and thriving neighborhoods that helps communities contribute to the decision-making, share knowledge and collectively recover and prepare for both stresses and shocks; collaborative and proactive approaches to create a better understanding of the city’s vulnerabilities, hazards, risks and strengths related to our social, economic, physical and ecological systems so as to change systems in the city that make people vulnerable; adaptive and safe building and infrastructure improves access to basic needs, ensure provision of safe and reliable services today and in future and enhances performance in case of an earthquake. Paul Davidoff advocacy planning paradigm is anchored upon the concept of pluralism in planning. The goal of the planning process is to determine which of the several vision-plans or scenarios will be implemented and adopted. With respect to adoption and implementation, every respective outcome has different costs and benefits to each of the groups involved in the planning process. The notion of pluralism in planning, use of values and choices driven by social and political issues are central aspects in making planning decisions. Paul Davidoff’s planning theory corresponds with The Vancouver Plan as among one of its major foundational principals is equity(PARKER & STREET, 2018). The approaches invested in equity include indigenous rights which recognize, uphold and protect inherent and constitutional rights of indigenous rights; racial justice which understands and talks about racial implications and actively working to dismantle racism; intersectionality which recognizes different forms of systematic discriminations and designs different ways to specifically benefit the negatively impacted; systematic orientation aimed at identifying embedded discrimination within systems and coming up with better incentives and rules that will lead to better equitable outcomes(PARKER & STREET, 2018). John Forrester and Patsy Healey’s communicative planning theory is an approach that aims to gather stakeholders and engage them in in a process of decision making together in a manner that respects the position of all involved. The main idea is that planning can become more just and democratic through enhancement of quantity and quality of communication between actors of planning such as politicians, planners, private sectors and citizens. The Vancouver plan applies the same approach in its plan preparation as engagement is a critical process so as to attain many perspectives as possible. The plan places emphasis on centering voices that have been left out in the planning dialogue ensuring that everyone is considered in the formulation of the plan. The first three engagement processes included workshops, pop-up events, surveys and engaged 28,500 contacts. References PARKER, G., & STREET, E. (2018). Advocacy planning: Enabling Participatory Planning, 43–60. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctt22h6qbk.9 Plan, V. (2020). Vancouver plan 20 50.

American History

Historically, though various cultures clang with each other, some contribute to enabling a sound economy. For instance, the two documents are clear that individuals met to form European colonies in North America under various circumstances. They had different ideas, as explained in the two documents through their origin and some of the agreements which were settled together. According to the document letters from an American farmer (1782) letter 111 what is an American by J. Hector St. John de Crevecoeur, it is clear that people met to improve the economic status of the country (King 338). For instance, the documents state that the plants and hunger had taken a large portion of the area to the extent of mowing down. After some time and cooperation, plants in the country flourished, thus eradicating poverty and improvement of various industries.

The predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors that act as supports for or barriers to changing the behaviors and environmental factors you identified in Sections 1 and 2 (Phase 3)

The project will find several factors that act as barriers to reducing the spread of STDs. The most prominent barrier is peer pressure, which is a key issue in Baltimore City. Peer pressure results in adolescents having sex with individuals who have STDs and possibly spreading it to other individuals. The behavioral change process will be a challenge for this program because it deals with personal behavior such as drug use, smoking, and risk-taking sexual activity among adolescents and young adults. While peer pressure is a key player in these behaviors, there are other factors that serve as barriers to change such as lack of knowledge about the risks associated with an STD and the fear of being labeled or judged by peers or family members. Also, individuals are unaware of the importance of being tested for an STD. The most prominent factor that acts as a barrier to changing risky sexual behaviors is lack of awareness and knowledge. These individuals do not feel comfortable seeking help because they are not educated on how to decrease their risk or how to reduce their partner’s risk. Other barriers to changing these behaviors includes lack of access to health care, lack of knowledge about emergency contraception (EC), and a lack of understanding that an infection can last years when left untreated.

Community Assessment STIs Baltimore City

The community of Baltimore City is a large part of this project and educating the community will be essential to reduce the spread of STIs. This can be done through utilizing non-traditional organizations that have a high concentration of individuals at risk for contracting an STI. The community of Baltimore City as a whole has an accumulation of non-traditional organizations that can be used to educate individuals about STIs (Burns, 2020). These non-traditional organizations are smaller and have limited resources, but they are located in the city where most of the infections occur. Such organizations will be key members to provide awareness and testing for the project. Planning grant money is allotted for community outreach and education. The project hopes to distribute educational pamphlets, flyers, and posters throughout the city to ensure that all individuals will have access to information. The Baltimore Health Department is working with local clinics to identify the needs in their communities and will be able to answer questions regarding testing and treatment of STIs. The local clinics are essential members of the community because they are located within Baltimore City and serve Baltimore residents.

Sexually Transmitted

The adolescent and young adult population is particularly vulnerable to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Teens often lack information about sexual health issues and are at a greater risk of becoming infected with an STD or HIV/AIDS due to lack of access to sexual health information and services (Alhassan, 2019). In addition, peer pressure and lack of control over their own sexuality increase teens’ risk for acquiring an STD. Therefore, it is important to understand the factors that play a role in promoting sexual risk behaviors among youth in order to develop effective prevention and intervention strategies to reduce the spread of STDs. Teen pregnancy and STDs have been on the rise since 2010, but efforts have been made to promote healthy sexual behaviors (Ljubojević, 2010). Cities across the United States have implemented various prevention programs targeting youth to reduce the rate of teen pregnancy, but research on the effectiveness of these prevention programs is limited. The rates of STDs in adolescents and young adults are continuously on the rise, affecting over 1 million people annually. Baltimore faces a number of public health problems including drug addiction and HIV, which correlate with other STDs in adolescents. The project is aimed at increasing awareness and providing services to help reduce sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates within Baltimore City (Hsu, 2022). Many people who contract a sexually transmitted infection (STI) do not have an awareness of the disease or are not willing to seek medical attention. A large part of the transmission occurs through infected partners with no knowledge of their status. The project aims at educating these individuals regarding their risk and decreasing their rates of infection by providing quality healthcare. According to the CDC, Baltimore has 3,707 reported cases per 100,000 people and is the second highest city for sexually transmitted infections rates in the United States (CDC, 2022). A collaborative approach with the Baltimore City Health Department and local clinics will be used to provide education to prevent the spread of STDs. The project will also assist in identifying at risk individuals and providing intervention services. There are several areas to address within the community to reduce the spread of STIs significantly such as economic, social, and behavioral factors. Majority of the prevalence of STIs is affecting those in poverty with limitations on access to quality health care. The prevalence of adolescent and young adult STD rates is on the rise and adversely affecting the health of the local population. Therefore, it is important to understand the factors that play a role in promoting sexual risk behaviors among youth in order to develop effective prevention and intervention strategies to reduce the spread of STDs.

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