FORCED MIGRATION FROM THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO

 

 

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Forced Migration from The Democratic Republic of Congo Article Error (ETS) Article Error (ETS)

Introduction

Missing The Democratic Republic of the Congo, being one of the least developed nations in sub- Saharan Africa, has seen a large migrant rate linked to recent social and economic crises. Since the colonial period, there has been some migration to France from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, although it has risen since 1990 (2021). Migration flows have often been tied to political instability and armed conflict, as well as economic and social factors such as unemployment and poverty in the DRC. As such, migration has been a complex phenomenon concerning socio-economic factors in both countries. The Congolese migration population in France is not very large (215 900 people as of July 2012) but has experienced significant growth Missing”,” due to a high birth rate (more than 2 children per woman) that is above the French national average (1.8 children per woman) (2021). Political and economic unrest, demographic pressures, and civil war are a few interconnected elements that have influenced the migration patterns in the Congo. Family reunification has contributed significantly to Congolese migration flows, particularly during the 1960s and 1970s due to mass rural-urban migration.

However, civil wars since the 1990s have contributed to increased outflows of refugees from the DRC to neighboring countries such as Burundi, Rwanda, and Uganda but also Missing “,” ETS increasingly to other countries including Kenya, Zambia, and South Africa. The majority of Congolese migrants move to neighboring countries, however, there has been an increase in people moving seeking chances in Europe and other places. In the early 1990s, economic and political problems in Congo led to widespread migration outflows. In addition, as a result of the war, there was a significant increase in women marrying young and remaining single, creating a large pool of single women who could be married off to men from other regions. Due to high Confused TS levels of poverty and unemployment, more than 1 million Congolese women were forced into marriages. The war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (1991-2003) is one factor that has contributed to the increased outflow of Congolese migrants since 1991 (2021). This paper will discuss and provide numerical data on the rate at which people are migrating from their homeland, the Democratic Republic of Congo, to other places like the USA and the UK. It will pinpoint the reasons why there is such a rapid migration and the various case of human trafficking from the DRC to the UK. It will also provide some of the possible solutions to reduce the migration rate in DRC.

Forced Migration from DRC

In The Democratic Republic of Congo, there are various International Human Rights and Article Error (ETS) Humanitarian Law Violations that are observed one of them is Violence against women – Women are often subjected to violence both in the form of spousal abuse and sexual assault. As a result of this violent climate, women often do not have a voice in the decisions made by families and those who they live with. Violence against women is not limited to spousal abuse and sexual assault, it can also include rape. The United Nations mission Congolese Human Rights Commission (DRCDHRC) identifies several other common violations of International Human Rights Law that occur in the DRC. These include child soldiers; illegal recruitment of child soldiers; corporal punishment; forced marriage; human trafficking for purposes relating to sexual exploitation; violation of fundamental rights during military engagements and unlawful detentions (Beate, 2008). Violence against women is often ignored or treated as domestic violence. Domestic violence is illegal in the DRC and several laws prohibit domestic violence, however, it is still a common occurrence.

Violence against women tends to affect poorer women who do not have the same kind of power as higher-class women. They often do not have the legal rights and protections that are afforded to them because of their gender. Violence against women in the DRC is so common that some researchers believe it has become normalized. When corporal punishment or just plain beatings by loved ones become so common they are almost seen as “normal” (Beate, 2008). Violence in this way has become normalized which leads to an increased tolerance of other kinds of violence as well. Other several violations are seen in DRC including:

  1. Impunity – the failure to hold perpetrators accountable and bring those who have Article Error (ETS committed crimes in the past to justice.
  2. Child Soldiers – There are several reports of child soldiers being used in The Democratic Republic of Congo.
  3. Mob Justice – Mob justice is used to responding to various crimes.
  4. Rape – Rape has been used as a weapon and is considered a war crime.
  5. Mass graves of civilians – Civilian deaths in The Democratic Republic of Congo have been reported at a rate as high as 10,000 per month by some sources A recent mass grave Missing “,” ETS P/V (ETS was discovered containing more than 5,000 people murdered by Joseph Kony and his Lord’s Resistance Army guerrilla group (Beate, 2008)

PNV ETS People are compelled to leave the Democratic Republic of the Congo through a variety of methods, each of which is distinct. Many people are fleeing from the regime, hoping to find a safer place where they can live without the constant fear of being killed or imprisoned. It has Article Error ETS been reported this number ranges from 650,000 to 14 million people who have fled their homes Missing”,” in attempts to escape the regime (Beate, 2008). It has been said that these refugees are especially vulnerable as this country is surrounded by nine neighboring states and most of them have little to no formal border control setup which means anyone can easily cross in and out. There are P/V TS approximately 14.5 million people who have been displaced from what is known as the Kivu region. This is an area which lies on the eastern end of the country where there are 6 million people that live in this area. It is estimated that there are 5.4 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) within this region and an additional half a million refugees crossing over into neighboring states (Beate, 2008). Another 1.5 million refugees have crossed into these neighboring states Missing “,” ETS including Uganda, Angola, Rwanda, Tanzania, Burundi, and Zambia where they are hoping to find safety and shelter from the mass killings occurring in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

The entire region has been affected by war and conflict, it is estimated that there are currently

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26 armed conflicts in the Democratic Republic of Congo involving different groups and militias Of these, 15 of them are inter-ethnic conflicts while 14 are intra-ethnic. The province of North Kivu also has relations with neighboring countries Rwanda, Burundi, and Tanzania. It has been reported that these conflicts have forced approximately 6 million people to flee their homes to seek shelter from the violence occurring within this area. Other people are forced to migrate because of economic reasons. The country has an extreme number of people living under its poverty line, which is estimated to be as high as 62% of the population. This means that there are almost 1 third of the population living in poverty and within this group, there are many children who go without food and necessities because their parents cannot afford them. Some examples of

these are;

  1. 7 out of 10 girls before reaching puberty become pregnant
  2. 85% of children before age 5 do not attend school

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  1. Half of the head teachers do not have a secondary education.

The Human Rights situation in the DRC is a topic that people often misunderstand. It is caused partly by the country’s long, complicated history as well as regional and international conflicts that have also affected human rights. Understanding the history of the country will lead P/V ETS to a better understanding of how Congo has reached its current state, how it affects its citizens, and what can be done to help solve it. Congo is a nation that has been plagued with civil wars since gaining independence in 1960 (Democratic Republic of the Congo archives). There are constant clashes between different ethnic groups who live on the same land, which has increased tensions over time because there are many different languages spoken which exclude each other from communication. These clashes have resulted in many deaths, as well as displacing households that are trying to escape violence. It is estimated that over 5 million individuals have been displaced by the violence and have migrated to different countries. Many individuals have P/V TS also died from starvation or diseases while they were displaced, and they do not know how to return to their homes. At one point during the conflict, the International Criminal Court (ICC) was involved in prosecuting war criminals (2018). The trial took place in a special United Nations-backed court located in Tanzania due to security concerns. In addition, there were over 100,000 civilians were killed by rape between 1998-2007 and more than 2 million individuals died of AIDS due to unprotected sex during the conflict between 1993-2007 (Democratic Republic of the Congo archives)

Cases of human trafficking in the UK from The Democratic Republic of Congo

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The DRC is a country in extreme turmoil. It boasts the second-largest natural resource wealth in all of Africa but has been torn by conflict over the past few decades. The country’s Article Error (TS P/V TS security situation remains volatile and human rights violations are rampant, but the current president just won re-election for a second term. It is estimated that over 5.4 million people have died and 4 million have been displaced due to the conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The war has led to mass human rights violations and violence against women, such as rape and sexual violence. In 2009, “the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees estimated that there were more than 17,000 Congolese refugees in eastern DRC and Uganda” (2020). Human trafficking in the UK from The Democratic Republic of Congo is a common case Article Error with a high level of public awareness. It is often that cases are not as well-known as cases across the world. This article will explore human trafficking in the DRC and provide you with some information about the levels of risk associated with it for those traveling to the country. It is important to note that this post will mainly focus on those who may fall victim to human trafficking within the DRC and not on how they enter or leave, this article will also explore what effects human trafficking has on victims so you can have further understanding of its occurrence in the region (2020).

Human trafficking is a serious issue, it has now become the second most lucrative criminal offense in the world, estimated to be worth £9.2 billion globally per year (McGuckin, Missing”,”S 2021). It seems to be an issue that is unaffected by globalization and new technology, according to statistics provided by the International Labor Organization (ILO). Each year there are 20.9 million people who are victims of human trafficking in a variety of manners. According to these statistics, at least 1.5 million children are exploited for sexual purposes annually; 500 000 children are trafficked for labor purposes each year, and 2.4 million people are forced into domestic servitude or commercial sexual exploitation each year (ILO). According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) in 2012, the poor economic situation and high unemployment rates in the DRC led to an increase in internal human trafficking. In 2013, they recorded 1,028 cases of human trafficking, with 933 victims; an increase from 826 cases in 2012. The war has led to mass human rights violations and violence against women, such as rape and sexual violence.” (McGuckin, 2021).

The United States government continues to advise against travel to The Democratic Republic of Congo because of ongoing unrest and armed conflict which occasionally spills over into neighboring countries. American citizens and United States government personnel are encouraged to take extra caution to ensure their safety, especially if visiting rural areas. 13 According to the 2011 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS), “The majority of travel in The Democratic Republic of Congo is for work and business purposes. 16% of trips are for leisure activities (such as tourism, visiting friends or relatives, visiting religious sites, attending cultural events or recreation) and the remaining 84% is for shopping”. “For monthly household travel only, 56% use private vehicles (McGuckin, 2021). The remaining 44% use public transport mode and no mode of private transport.” The economy of The Democratic Republic of Frag. Ers Congo is primarily based on agriculture and mining (McGuckin, 2021). Article Error

Over 80% of these were seeking protection from Human trafficking – clearly indicating a significant problem of Human Trafficking in the United Kingdom. Human Trafficking and Prostitution are considered to be two main elements for the smuggling and trafficking of individuals from Africa. They are the most open ways in which people from different countries can come into contact with each other. In the case of “sexual exploitation”, everyone provides sexual services, while in the case of “forced labor” people are forced into jobs that they are not able to perform. An analysis was made by Freedom House, a New York-based organization that researches global freedom issues- on the country’s background with regards to human trafficking The United Kingdom is a destination country for human trafficking victims from Africa, Eastern PNG Europe, and Southeast Asia particularly Albania, Poland, Nigeria, and China. The number of persons trafficked via fictitious employment or marriage proposals to affluent Westerners has increased in recent years. Worryingly for many EU Member States, there are also an increasing number of victims coming to the EU via their territories. It is estimated that around 55400 people were trafficked into the European Union in 2010 (2017).

Conclusion

In conclusion, there are two important reasons why people are migrating from DRC to the UK. The first reason is the fact that it is just not safe for people to live in DRC and second I will be looking at the lack of employment opportunities in DRC. Unfortunately, when it comes to Congo there is a case of neglect due to corruption and conflict. People are leaving Congo because of many reasons and for many reasons avoidance becomes one of their difficulties. Various factors play a role in the decision to migrate from Congo, such as disputes between communities, economic factors, natural resources, and political circumstances. With all this said, the two most important factors behind this migration are the increasing number of conflicts and the lack of jobs. Moving forward there might be a solution for this which could be investing in businesses in DRC or increasing security measures around border areas between Congo and other countries like Uganda, Rwanda, or Burundi. These countries have had a history of civil war and currently do not have a strong government to control the number of people crossing over to other countries (2017).

A possible solution could be investing in a business in DRC, to aid the country rather than just looking at the number of refugees coming from the country. Investing in businesses would help with the economy allowing people to stay in their own country, they can invest in Missing”,”S businesses that create jobs. Education is another key area, which creates jobs as well and it Missing

allows people to be able to read and write which helps with influencing governments or other charity organizations. Economic growth will contribute to large-scale farming which in turn can create more jobs and increase the economy. It is a major issue but I believe that there are solutions that can be used: Investing in the business’s in the country, increasing security around border areas like Rwanda-Burundi, Increased education, and reading, promoting literacy, Increasing enforcement of laws and rules with countries like Uganda or Rwanda. These are some suggestions on how to reduce or solve this problem, many ways can be worked out, they may not all be accurate but they do illustrate what I believe could be done to solve this problem.

 

 

References

Beate, R. (2008) “United Nations Commission on human rights/united nations human rights council,” Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law [Preprint]. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1093/law:epil/9780199231690/e883.

Democratic Republic of Congo (2021) Migrants & Refugees Section. Available at:

https://migrants-refugees.va/country-profile/democratic-republic-of-congo/ (Accessed: December 15, 2022).

Democratic Republic of the Congo (2022) migrationpolicy.org. Available at:

https://www.migrationpolicy.org/country-resource/congo-democratic-republic (Accessed: December 15, 2022).

Democratic Republic of the Congo archives (no date) Amnesty International. Available at:

https://www.amnesty.org/en/location/africa/east-africa-the-horn-and-great- lakes/democratic-republic-of-the-congo/report-democratic-republic-of-the-congo/ (Accessed: December 15, 2022).

“Forced migration: Refugees, rights and security” (no date) Forced Migration, Human Rights and Security [Preprint]. Available at: https://doi.org/10.5040/9781472564283.ch-001.

“Human-rights-watch-democratic-republic-of-congo-what-future-street-children-in-the- democratic-republic-of-congo-APR-2006-VOL18-NO2A-73-PP” (no date) Human Rights Documents online [Preprint]. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1163/2210-7975 hrd-2156- 0505.

“The International Criminal Court (ICC)” (2018) International and European Criminal Law [Preprint]. Available at: https://doi.org/10.5040/9781509922222.ch-012.

McGuckin, N. (2021) “The National Household Travel Survey Data Series (npts/NHTS),” International Encyclopedia of Transportation, pp. 493–495. Available at:

https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-08-102671-7.10372-0.

Report on violations of human rights and international humanitarian law by the Allied

Democratic Forces Armed Group and by members of the defense and security forces in DRC, between 1 January 2019 and 31 January 2020 – Democratic Republic of the Congo (2020) ReliefWeb. Available at: https://reliefweb.int/report/democratic-republic- congo/report-violations-human-rights-and-international-humanitarian-law (Accessed:

December 15, 2022).

“Special plenary history of the DRC” (2017) 2017 75th Annual Device Research Conference (DRC) [Preprint]. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1109/drc.2017.7999468.