Drug Use

DRUG USE
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Drug Use
Drug use is a global issue that is affecting both developing and already developed countries. The majority of drug users are younger people, especially adolescents. The youths who have been exposed to drugs tend to have delinquent and risk-taking behaviors such as violence, theft, and murder. The commonly abused drugs by adolescents include tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, heroin, and cocaine. Nevertheless, many organizations have been trying to come up with programs to handle the use of drugs. This annotated bibliography will provide several sources that are critical for analyzing the current policing responses used to respond to drug use.

Joudo, J. and Joudo, J., 2008. Responding to substance abuse and offending in Indigenous communities: a review of diversion programs. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.
This paper suggests that the overrepresentation of native individuals in the criminal justice system has always been an issue of concern. The study conducted shows that drug use among the native or indigenous offenders is very high than other people. Offending is one of the risk-taking behaviors related to drug use where it may involve theft, murder, rape, among other crimes. The relationship between offending and the use of drugs is a significant field of interest to researchers, policymakers, and practitioners. The issue has given the motivation for the creation of diverting initiatives and programs whose objective is to lower the offending rates by addressing the drug use in society. The key intention of these initiatives and plans is to reduce the probability of moving further into the offensive ways.
The Australian Criminology Institute was contracted in 2006 by the department of the Attorney General. This institute was contracted to evaluate the government’s response to domestic drug use and related risk behaviors. Initially, the entire activity rotated around assessing the extent and type of diversion initiatives and programs that are effective currently. It also touched on barriers and accessibility to completion and participation. This particular report gives an outline of the programs mentioned earlier. The results suggest that there is a critical need to take note of drug use problems involved in alcohol and inhalants since they are much neglected in many diversion programs. The policymakers are much interested in the issues raised a brighter and broader distribution of information to improve access to appropriate treatment and cross-check the eligible criteria for these diversion programs.
The source is very crucial for the analysis of contemporary policing responses used to respond to drugs because it highlights the current reactions of Australia to drug use and related offences. The source will help in expounding the labelling theory and edge-work of risk-taking behaviors across the globe.

Mazerolle, L., Soole, D.W. and Rombouts, S., 2007. Street‐level drug law enforcement: A meta‐analytic review. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 3(1), pp.1-47.
The street-level crimes related to drugs is a fight that is hard-won by spending much more resources on outdated policing work. Instead, partnerships between third parties and the policy enforcers should be considered and applied. In this report, all the studies were conducted in the United States of America. All research measured the impact by comparison of an intervention group by a control group. The findings showed that the problem-oriented and also community policing strategies and approaches are much more efficient and operational at reducing drug use in society. The methods are more effective than law enforcement strategies, which primarily focus on drug hotspots only.
It was also discovered that problem-oriented policing is more efficient than community-wide policing approach. However, community-wide policing strategies reduce activities related to a disorder more than law enforcement activities that mainly focus on drug hotspots only. On the other hand, the study suggests that rather than increasing arrests, at drug hotspots, the law enforcement department should majorly focus on fruitful corporations with the third parties. Also, they should highly target drug hotspots rather than distributing intervention across the entire neighborhood. Finally, they should alter the existing criminogenic situations in a society facing drug problems.
This source has mentioned the existing responses, their effectiveness, and the necessary changes that should be made to create more effective approaches to drug use issue. That makes it very useful for handling every element of the final essay.

Freiberg, A., 2002. Drug Courts: Sentencing responses to drug use and drug-related crime. Alternative Law Journal, 27(6), pp.282-286.
The author states the drug courts that were established in the US in the 1980s have appeared as one of the responses of the increasing drug use problem and crimes related to these drugs in Australia. The article notes that they are associated with an emerging trend known as problem-oriented courts. Despite the American experience becoming well-known in places like Victoria, several political parties gathered to discuss the possibility of developing a drug court in ambiguous terms. The plan was not until a drug court was established by the New South Wales and functioning there was special attention in a Victorian trial. However, representatives from different jurisdictions presented papers of initiatives for their states which entailed considerations to introduce similar programs or drug courts. This happened in a seminar held in February 2000, at The University of Melbourne.
Earlier, Victoria was opposed to the establishment of a drug court. The Drug policy Expert Committee advised against drug courts arguing that it was not the best response to handle drug problem in Victoria. They argued that most courts have vast volumes of cases which included drug cases, and every magistrate should possess strong expertise to deal with drug offenders. Therefore, if a special court were created, the other courts would turn back to the old criminal justice practices. The committee also argued that the specialist jurisdiction would easily siphon resources from the generalist initiatives and programs. However, the proposal to have drug courts succeeded later in 2002. This source will significantly assist in identifying the origin and the journey of drug courts in Victoria and some approaches that are related to the labelling theory of crime, which the final essay will focus on.

Stevens, A., Trace, M. and Bewley-Taylor, D., 2005. Reducing drug-related crime: an overview of the global evidence. The Beckley Foundation Drug Policy Program. Retrieved March 10, p.2008.
This source majorly focuses on producing a more independent and critical review of both international and national drug policies effectiveness and efficiency. This research and analysis, the authors collected and disseminated the materials. These materials entirely support the consideration and appreciation of more complex drug policies problems. The results are significant to the global management of the extensive use of drugs in the future. It analyzed the use of drugs and the issues related to that activity. More concern was put in the contemporary international policy guideline. The researchers noted that the policy hardly meets its objective of widely lowering the illicit substance market, thus allowing the number of the drug user to increase across the globe. The article also covers the risk behaviors associated with drug use. They include the psycho-pharmacological impacts on the brain, crimes to get drugs.
The paper concludes that the ruling governments should try to consider the developing programs and policies in areas where drug are highly used. Also, there should be a critical review and evaluation that the harsh enforcement against the users is the best method to lower drug use and drug-related crimes. Also, there should be treatment programs that are of high quality where the drug user can be medically assisted to quit drugs. This not only reduces crime but also poverty across society. When handling the final essay, this article will be useful since it will aid in illustrating the edgework of risk-taking behaviors and offer strategies to lower addiction levels.

Holloway, K., Bennett, T. and Farrington, D., 2006. The effectiveness of criminal justice and treatment programs in reducing drug-related crime: a systematic review. Home Office.
This review inspects the evaluative study on two drug use responses — first, the treatment programs whose objective is to lower the use of drugs and substance. The second response is the criminal justice initiatives and programs that majorly focus on reducing crimes associated with drugs. Therefore, the key objective of the study was to assess the effectiveness of interventions that endure indirectly or directly upon offences related to drugs. Those programs that give community-based or institutional treatment for drug abusers are included. The plans involved include Counselling Advice Referral Assessment Through-care, Drug Treatment and Testing Orders, Drugs Intervention Program, Drug Abstinence Requirements, among other programs that are prison-based. Generally, the programs give drug treatment for the drug abusers. A lot of activities are undertaken, including local therapeutic societies, detoxification, and methadone maintenance.
Most clients receive treatment after being referred by the criminal justice system or agent. The study suggests that drug intervention programs significantly work in reducing crimes. However, it is still hard to explain programs on the offender’s behavior. Therefore, the critical point to note concerning the ruling government is that it is not prescriptive on the kind of treatment to be used to lower the rates of drug-related crimes. The more intense the intervention is, the stronger the success evidence. This source will be significant when writing the final essay since it will provide relevant information addressing drug use as a global problem. Besides, the article will strengthen the arguments in the essay since the approaches are well associated with the labelling theory of crime.
Conclusion
In the contemporary world, more researchers and scholars have tried to introduce new approaches to the current policing responses to drug and substance use. Most of the criteria have been put in the form of writing. As a result, increasing the sources for analyzing the current policing reactions across the globe. The above-discussed sources are very crucial for the final essay that will mainly focus on two theories (labelling theory and edge-work risk-taking behavior). The sources have different and useful evidence that has an expert foundation towards different approaches to different policing responses. The sources have relevant information that will aid in establishing solid arguments in the entire paper.

References
Freiberg, A., 2002. Drug Courts: Sentencing responses to drug use and drug-related crime. Alternative Law Journal, 27(6), pp.282-286.
Holloway, K., Bennett, T. and Farrington, D., 2006. The effectiveness of criminal justice and treatment programs in reducing drug-related crime: a systematic review. Home Office.
Joudo, J. and Joudo, J., 2008. Responding to substance abuse and offending in Indigenous communities: a review of diversion programs. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.
Mazerolle, L., Soole, D.W. and Rombouts, S., 2007. Street‐level drug law enforcement: A meta‐analytic review. Campbell Systematic Reviews, 3(1), pp.1-47.
Stevens, A., Trace, M. and Bewley-Taylor, D., 2005. Reducing drug-related crime: an overview of the global evidence. The Beckley Foundation Drug Policy Program. Retrieved March 10, p.2008.

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