Children Raised By Grandparents
Children Raised By Grandparents
Majority of the empirical studies focusing on the children raised by grandparents are quite limited despite that grand parenting becoming prominent in most of the alternative family structure. Some grandparents are serving as surrogate parents rather than functioning as abusive parents, foster caregivers or even nonrelatives (Zhu, 2019). Many children brought up by the grandparents often benefit from favorable significant experience in parenting as well as schooling. The study will be based on the study variables such as presence of co-parenting, support of grandparents in children growth and development, children and grandchildren bonding (Sahin et al., 2018).
The study variables shall be measured with the application of second order Scott adjusted X2 tests. The application of regression model will be appropriate towards measuring the crucial study confounders. The study shall make use of linear and logistics models which are appropriate towards investigating the fundamental factors affecting children being raised under the care of grandparents. The study outcome will provide a clear reflection of the impact of children raised by grandchildren. The results can form an integral part towards formulating appropriate mental health coping strategies (Yalcin et al., 2018).
In the United States of America, there are approximately 3.6 million children who are under eighteen years and they are under the custody of their grandparents (Edwards, 2018). The number of children being raised by grandparents in the U.S is quite increasing nowadays from 2.5 million children in 2005 to 2.9 million children in 2015. As much as the grandparents can offer great support and viable support to the families, the grand parenting has been necessitated by some parents being unable to provide for their children. Approximately 72 percent of the children raised by the grandparents are exposed to traumatic disorders. Some children who enter non-parental kinship get exposed to unique living places with complex relationships which affect their long term development (Pandey & Littlewood, 2019).
There is a correlation between demographic and grandparents health. Scholars noted that majority of the care giver grandparents are aged between fifty to fifty eight and most of them are experiencing physical and mental health related problems (Edwards, 2018). The same grandparents are resuming the parental responsibility with psychological related problems which are resulting from feeling isolated from the friends and relatives. There have been cases where grandparents receive inadequate support from different groups
The studies conducted on children health and development outcome under the care of grandparents has resulted to different reactions. Different studies undertaken have shown that despite that there is adversity in early life of children coping with the available fewer resources cannot support parental care provided from the grandparents (Wang et al., 2019). Some studies cited that there is increased prevalence of delay in children development, behavioral norms, and character difficulties. High traumatic characters and inappropriate children development in grandparental care often result to affect the children social development.
1.2 Study Variables
The study was based on the following variables;
i. Presence of co-parenting
ii. Support of grandparents in children growth and development
Children and grandparents bonding
1.3 Study Hypothesis
The study focused on answering the following research hypothesis;
i. Presence of co-parenting; there is no significant effect of co-parenting on children raised by grandparents.
ii. Support of grandparents in children growth and development; there is no significant effect of grandparents support on children raised by grandparents.
iii. Children and grandparents bonding; there is no significant impact of children and grandchildren bonding on children raised by grandparents.
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Presence of Co-parenting
Parental relationships face numerous problems such as divorce, mental health disorders, drug abuse among others, which affecting children growth and thus resulting to co-parenting with the grand parenting (Hayslip & Kaminski, 2005). The number of grandparents taking care of children has recently increased. Many scholars have focused on the well-being of the children under the care of normal parents. Majority of the grandparents are taking a key role in executing co-parenting roles (Cooper et al., 2019).
2.2 Support of Grandparents in Children Wellbeing
Different studies which have been undertaken focused on the psychological and also mental health status of grandparents providing care to children. Most of the factors studied include; socio-economic, children wellbeing, family attachment (Edwards, 2018). However, there is limited study which have been undertaken on the impact of children raised by grandparents, quality of care offered by grandparents, and also the interventions provided on those children growth and development. Grandparents might be the best caregivers but at the point when parents are absent. Improvement of care provided is important towards development of the children.
2.3 Children and Grandparents Bonding
According to Poehlmann (2003) argued that there exist three type of relationship which occur simultaneously especially when grandparents are taking care of children. Disruptions among parents affects attachment between children and parents. These disruptions result to development of relationships such as grandparent and children relationship as they serve as caregivers.
3.0 Measurement of the Variables
The study variables will be measured using the second order Rao Scott adjusted X2 tests. The study shall involve both linear and logistics regression models will be applicable to investigate the model results of interest as key functions of the study variables. Regression model will be adjusted towards the crucial confounders of the study variables (Wang et al., 2019).
With approximately three million children being raised by either single or both parents, there is need for pediatricians to be keen of the psychological factors demographic and parental problems that are associated with children being raised by grandparents (Wang et al., 2019). Children under the care of grandparents needs to be screened for better heighten of stress. Pediatricians needs to be offer family support to different groups and resources required to achieve quality parenting from the grandparents (Pandey et al., 2019). There is need for different governments and groups to formulated mental health coping strategies which will support marriages and reduced stress and also depression issues experienced among different parents. The study forms the basis of understanding the underlying issues among the children being raised by grandparents (Edwards, 2018).
Edwards, O. W. (2018). School perceptions of children raised by grandparents. Journal of applied school psychology, 34(1), 86-100.
Hayslip B Jr., Fruhauf CA, Dolbin- MacNab ML.(2017). Grandparents raising grandchildren: what have we learned over the past decade? Gerontologist; 57(6):1196
Pandey A, Littlewood K, Cooper L, et al. (2019) Connecting older grandmothers raising grand children with community resources improves family resiliency, social support, and caregiver selfefficacy;31(3):269–283
Pang, W., Lu, Y., Long, H., Wang, Q., & Lin, L. (2020). Three-generational families: Are they beneficial to Chinese children’s creativity?. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 35, 100623.
Wang CD, Hayslip B Jr., Sun Q, Zhu W. (2019). Grandparents as the primary care providers for their grandchildren: a cross-cultural comparison of Chinese and U.S. Samples. Int J Aging Hum Dev;89(4):331–355
Whitley DM, Fuller-Thomson E. African – American solo grandparents raising grandchildren: a representative profile of their health status. J Community Health. 2017;42(2):312–323.
Yalcin BM, Pirdal H, Karakoc EV, Sahin EM, Ozturk O, Unal M.(2018). General health perception, depression and quality of life in geriatric grandmothers providing care for grandchildren. Arch Gerontol Geriatr; 79:108–115