All essays

According to the Brennan Center, the primary method used today to suppress the voters is “Erecting new barriers to the Ballot box” (Johnson, 2020). Many states in the country have passed various laws that directly restrict people on their right to vote. The restrictions come in various ways, such as the prerequisite of having an ID. Today voters must present a Government-issued ID to be able to vote. This specific law has been proven to be a burden because studies have revealed that although people think that most Americans have IDs, the reality is millions of Americans do not possess IDs, especially Black people. This is evident when the district court of North Dakota discovered that 19 % of Native Americans lacked IDs, compared to 12% of other voters (Johnson, 202). The requirement of possessing IDs as a condition to vote varies from one state to another. Some states allow handgun licenses to vote but not allowing student’s IDs. Another suppression method is the need for matching names on registration records and on approved forms of identification (Levit, 2007). These restrictions have locked out a lot of Americans from voting, especially people of color. Many people upon reaching the ballot box, find their names either wrongly matched. This restricts them from voting. The early voting also has been significantly contributing to voter’s suppression; besides millions of people are restricted from voting because of a criminal conviction (Wendy et al., 2021). Although the laws on offender’s right to vote differ from one state to the other, a significant amount of citizens are suppressed on their voting rights because of criminal conviction.
The causes for voter’s suppression as discussed in class are restriction placed on voter’s registration. There are tough terms and conditions placed upon registering as a voter, they can include; documents to prove citizenship, limited time of registering and also voter’s fraud. Voter’s fraud occurs during the whole process of election, from pending voters, where voters are listed to not have voted for the last years and cannot be found, to political parties closing polling stations. Although voter’s fraud is paramount, it is hardly reported by the media, or when it is, the reporting is of biases and not disclosing the whole truth (Erickson, 2020). With lack of information, voter suppression surges. Another cause for voter’s suppression is the highly discouragement of voter’s participation due to harsh treatments like denying voters access to food and water. For example in Georgia, there is a law that forbids giving voters standing on the long lines food and water(“ACLU news & commentary,” 2021 ).Voters purge also causes suppression, as the cleaning process of voters might caught people unaware that they aren’t eligible to vote when they surprisingly find their names deleted on the rolls.
In my opinion, voter’s suppression is a great threat to democracy. Democracy entails running a government where the system is inclusive of all, with members of the government being elected by the people. There is no democracy if citizens of a country are denied or overpowered to their civil rights. I think voter’s suppression directly affects this civil rights, which constitutes democracy. Suppression promotes discrimination at a heightened level, especially with all the restriction of voting affecting the majority of people of color. All across different states, lawmakers are constantly making it harder for African Americans and other minorities to vote; from restrictive requirements such as Government ID, voter’s purges to the marginalization of people with criminal background. If Voter’s suppression is not capped, it will continue to pose as a great threat to democracy, which eventually will eliminate a democratic system of government.

Summary of an Audit Issue Research

Student’s Name
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Summary of an Audit Issue Research

The research study reviewed in this summary is” The Impact of Audit Committee and External Auditor Characteristics on financial Reporting Quality among Malaysian Firms” by Aram Jawar and Dler Ahmed. The audit article mainly looks into how the audit committee and the external auditors determine the quality of a financial report. The authors further argue that in the capital markets, the financial reports mainly determine a market’s valuation, and thus audit is a vital component. The research is based on Malaysian top 100 performing firms according to the Bursa stock exchange market in 2014.
The article mainly looks into the audit issues but, more specifically, the impact that the audit committee and the external auditors have on the quality of the financial reports. The article states that financial reports play a critical role in ensuring proper wealth transfer and valuation of financial instruments and companies. Poor reporting results in inefficient wealth transfer and losses while trading in the financial markets(Jawhar et al.& Ahmed et al., 2017). Thus, the audit committee and external auditors are the primary players in financial reporting. Audit issues are common in businesses, including those that do not have an audit committee. We can see the quality of financial reports we will achieve by looking at the characteristics of the audit committee and the external auditors.
The expected or predicted outcome of this research study is that if there is an efficient audit committee and external auditors, the financial reports will be of high quality. Poor financial reports are the result of an ineffective corporate board. An external auditor’s primary responsibility is to review a company’s financial information and report on the findings(Jawhar et al.& Ahmed et al., 2017). Another responsibility is to investigate financial reports for errors and fraud and perform audit operations and make recommendations. The audit committee oversees the audit process’s financial reporting process and collaborates with the external auditors during the auditing process. As a result, the quality of financial reports is determined by these key players. As a result, the rationale is based on the roles assigned to the audit committee and the external auditors.
The correlation method is primarily used in the research study. It is clear because the study seeks to determine the relationship between audit committee characteristics such as independence, expertise, and diligence, and external auditor characteristics such as large audit firms, industry leaders, and financial reporting quality of Malaysia’s top 100 listed companies in 2014(Jawhar et al.& Ahmed et al., 2017). The audit committee characteristics and the external auditors’ characteristics are independent variables, while the financial reporting quality is the dependent variable. They employed a regression model as well as a descriptive analysis of the variables in the study.
The examination of the top 100 Malaysian companies from the Bursa Malaysia revealed estimation results that all included explanatory variables, except for external auditor large firm, have a substantial influence on financial reporting quality. This demonstrates that large audit firms’ external auditors have almost no impact on the quality of financial reports.Though previous articles focused on the audit committee’s characteristics and their impact on the quality of financial reports, this study goes a step further and examines the external auditors’ characteristics and their impact on the quality of financial reports.
Other research studies have found that the big four audit firms have a significant relationship with financial reporting quality. This is in contrast to current research, which indicates that extensive audits have little impact on financial reporting quality. Except for the findings of the large audit firms, all of the findings are supported by previous research.
The study had many limitations, which must be analyzed to give more conclusive outcomes. To reduce estimation errors, the sample size must be increased to estimate the population means accurately. As a result, the study tested the effect of some factors on financial reporting quality; therefore, additional factors that influence financial reporting quality in the Malaysian context should be considered in future studies to provide more insight and efficacy.
Only if the research has never been conducted in that country should a similar methodology be used. To reduce errors, the sample size in future studies should be increased if more annual reports are available(Jawhar et al.& Ahmed et al., 2017). Another limitation is the study’s low comparison consideration. In this concept, different models of measuring and estimating the influence on financial reporting quality are used, or models from other studies are combined, allowing comparison of the current results.
The final limitation is that the study did not consider the relationship between the audit committee’s size and the external auditor’s tenure on the audit committee about financial reporting quality. The size of the audit committee provides insight into the organization and workload. The external auditor’s audit committee tenure outlines the conditions and rules that auditors are expected to follow and the disciplinary measures that be undertakenwill be imposed if they do not. The results are more in-depth and conclusive as a result of considering this in the study.
The study provides in-depth research on the Malaysian report concerning the quality of financial reports and their factors.(Jawhar et al.& Ahmed et al., 2017) Investors and the general public can use the information to value the various firms they wish to trade on the Bursa Malaysia stock exchange market. The study is critical in examining and improving the external auditors’ and audit committee’s performance to provide quality financial reporting.
In conclusion, because audit issues affect many parts of the economic system, research on this topic significantly impacts the financial market. The study provides an overview of the relationship between external auditors, audit committees, and financial report quality. The study includes correlational studies to determine the relationship between them and additional insight into the importance of quality financial reports, as demonstrated in the review. While specifying the variables, the study looks into previous research on audit issues. Understanding the impact of external auditors and the audit committee on ensuring transparency and quality financial reports is essential because financial reports play a significant role in the capital markets.

References
Jawhar, A., & Ahmed, D. (2017). (PDF) The impact of the audit committee and external auditor … Retrieved October 11, 2021, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/326521944_The_Impact_of_Audit_Committee_and_External_Auditor_Characteristics_on_Financial_Reporting_Quality_among_Malaysian_Firms.

Surveillance Cameras in Public Places
Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliation
Date

Surveillance Cameras in Public Places
Introduction
The idea behind the video surveillance cameras project has been embraced in major Canadian cities and other cities worldwide. Commonplace outside private organizations, apartment buildings, streets, storefronts, underground tunnels, intersections, and parks, surveillance cameras have been widely accepted by the public as an essential technology for their personal safety. Video surveillance or Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) is one of the most common modes of surveillance. The technology uses cameras for surveillance, erected in strategic places by private or public agencies for crime prevention and prosecution. Video surveillance is a multifunctional tool initially used to manage risks associated with crime, accidents, fire, and traffic jams. However, there are conflicting opinions regarding the use of surveillance cameras in public places. Although some quotas believe that the technology should not be used, surveillance cameras can be essential for people’s lives and safety.
Carli, V. (2008). Assessing CCTV as an effective safety and management tool for crime-solving, prevention, and reduction. International Centre for the Prevention of Crime, 1-19. Retrieved from https://cipc-icpc.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/Assessing_CCTV_as_an_effective_safety_and_management_tool_ANG.pdf
In-text citation for a paraphrase of the source’s information (Carli, 2008)
In-text citation with page numbers for a direct quote from the source (Carli, 2008, pg. 4-15)
-The article gives a detailed background and origin of video surveillance.
Analysis:
-The author opines that video technology dates back to the mid-20th century with information and communication technology expansion.
-During this period, surveillance cameras were used mainly in shops, banks, and traffic management.
-The technology began expanding in cities, mainly in the United States and the United Kingdom.
-The United Kingdom is believed to be “the first country to implement video surveillance use, whereby its government installed thousands of surveillance cameras in the 1980s” (Carli, 2008, p. 6).
-1970s saw the mass adoption of surveillance cameras to monitor public places such as schools, parks, hospitals, and so on.
-Video technology began advancing at a significant rate in the 1990s.
Type of Surveillance System in the 1990s
-Digital Multiplexing was a more affordable surveillance system that revolutionized the video surveillance sector in the 1990s.
-The system has features such as “motion-only and time-lapse” that facilitate recording on numerous cameras at once, thus improving recording efficiency (p.6).
Uses of Surveillance Cameras
-Provides warning signs of “potential criminal offences and act as a reactive tool” (p.7).
-Reducing crime rates within targeted areas.
-Builds feelings of security.
-A management tool to administer and monitor “social spaces and transport systems” (p.9).
Note on Surveillance Cameras
-The author has also talked about ethical challenges surrounding the use of surveillance cameras in public places, such as mounting fears of insecurity, the suppression of individual freedoms for the “greater good,” and lack of privacy (p.11).
-The article also discusses existing regulations on the use of surveillance cameras, such as the Data Protection Act, Private Security Industry Act, among others.
-The article has several recommendations for further discussion on the effectiveness of surveillance cameras.
The article is an interesting piece because it gives surveillance cameras’ background, ethical challenges, regulations, and recommendations.
My question after reading the article is why the public is left out when it comes to the regulation and implementation of the technology? The public should be involved because this concerns their privacy and security.
Another source is listed on the reference page:
Ratcliffe, J. (2011). Video Surveillance of Public Places. Retrieved from https://cops.usdoj.gov/RIC/Publications/cops-p097-pub.pdf

Cavoukian, A. (2013). Surveillance, Then and Now: Securing Privacy in Public Spaces. Retrieved from https://www.ipc.on.ca/wp-content/uploads/Resources/pbd-surveillance.pdf
In-text citation for a paraphrase of the source’s information (Cavoukian, 2013)
In-text citation with page numbers for a direct quote from the source (Cavoukian, 2013, pg. 1-49)
-The article educates the broader public, lawmakers, and police in understanding and protecting people’s right to privacy concerning public video surveillance.
Analysis:
-The author argues that the right to privacy does not protect places but people.
-Therefore, as the Canadian government considers the implications of terrorist attacks, the public must consider that public video surveillance can increase efficiencies for law enforcement and the criminal justice system to apprehend illegal activities before they are executed.
-The author claims that there is a need to exercise a proactive approach, highlighting the right to informational privacy owed to all people.
-This way, “their right to privacy in public places can be secure due to the emergence of new technologies such as surveillance cameras” (Cavoukian, 2013, p. 1).
-The author opines that the actual value of confidentiality must be acknowledged and ideally enhanced by relevant stakeholders, not infringed, in any attempt to secure the country.
Note on Proactive Privacy
-The author also discusses the importance of proactive privacy by design approach when formulating and implanting the policy framework required for supervising state-owned surveillance cameras.
-The process will ensure that “confidentiality, transparency, and accountability are entrenched in any proposed video surveillance system” (p. 1).
-The power of the law enforcement agencies to deploy any form of invasive video surveillance technology must be inspected under a system of prior judicial authorization.
-The author insists on the importance of legal mechanisms to ensure the appropriate and accountable use of public video surveillance and other surveillance systems to guarantee public safety and the right to privacy.
My question after reading the article is whether the right to privacy is being respected in this era of new technologies? Video surveillance operators should ensure that they are honest when it comes to any collection of personal data.
Another source is listed on the reference page:
Ratcliffe, J. (2011). Video Surveillance of Public Places. Retrieved from https://cops.usdoj.gov/RIC/Publications/cops-p097-pub.pdf

Lai, D. (2007). Public video surveillance by the state: Policy, privacy legislation, and the Charter. Alberta Law Review, 45(1), 43-77. doi:10.29173/alr379
In-text citation for a paraphrase of the source’s information (Lai, 2007)
In-text citation with page numbers for a direct quote from the source (Lai, 2007, pg. 44-77)
-The article explores the growing phenomenon of video surveillance in public places and how people’s privacy should be protected by Canadian law while providing for effective law enforcement.
-It also explores the negative and positive consequences and modern technological advancements, which challenge law enforcers, legislatures, and courts.
Analysis:
-The author suggests that public video surveillance is a feature of the lives of most people worldwide.
-The public and policymakers should engage in an informed policy debate regarding the effectiveness of surveillance cameras and their impact on privacy.
-Although surveillance cameras reduce instances of crime, the author reckons that the system is “a complex phenomenon whose effectiveness can be challenging to predict” (Lai, 2007, p.77).
-The author insists that it is misleading to say that surveillance cameras will usher in a Big Brother state.
-Therefore, it is crucial to isolate public video surveillance features that infringe on privacy and uncover legal and technological means of reducing such infringements instead of eradicating the surveillance cameras.
Note on Two Case Concerning the use of Surveillance Cameras.
-The author also used two case studies from “Edmonton and Kelowna” to scrutinize the role of provincial and federal privacy legislation while examining Canadian Supreme Court interpretation of s. 8 of the Charter through an examination of jurisprudence relating to public video surveillance system (Lai, 2007, p. 43).
One question that arises is whether the analysis/collection scheme will preserve the effectiveness of public video surveillance while reducing its privacy-intrusive aspects? The author opines that the division of collection/analysis is supposed to reduce the impact on privacy. Therefore, video surveillance on innocent people will not exist because law enforcers will only access video footage based on particularized and reasonable grounds.
Another source is listed on the reference page:
Cavoukian, A. (2013). Surveillance, Then and Now: Securing Privacy in Public Spaces. Retrieved from https://www.ipc.on.ca/wp-content/uploads/Resources/pbd-surveillance.pdf

Lippert, R. (2008). Open-Street CCTV Canadian Style. Retrieved from https://www.crimeandjustice.org.uk/sites/crimeandjustice.org.uk/files/09627250708553283.pdf
In-text citation for a paraphrase of the source’s information (Lippert, 2007)
In-text citation with page numbers for a direct quote from the source (Lippert, 2007, pg. 31-32)
The article’s focus: it describes how Canada embraced the growing number of surveillance cameras in its major cities.
Analysis:
-The author claims that authorities more often use the threat of terrorism, violent incidences, and urban revitalization to justify their resolve to introduce public video surveillance.
-Open-street surveillance cameras can be seen slowly emerging in urban areas across the country in collaboration with “federal and provincial governments as well as municipal government and local police” (Lippert, 2007).
-Most often, surveillance cameras are installed in streets to target anti-social and criminal conduct.
-In some instances, law enforcers are using public video surveillance images to pursue criminal prosecutions.
– The regulation and evaluation of public video surveillance are all embryonic in Canada.
Note on Sections of the Law
-The author claims that sections in Canadian law like Section 4 place responsibility squarely on authorities to demonstrate that “less invasive modes of policing are not viable so that they can justify each surveillance camera through verifiable crime incident reports” (Lippert, 2007, 31).
-Section 6 requires the stakeholders to distribute pamphlets or post signs at the perimeter of the cameras’ gaze, showing members of the public why their data is being collected.
-Section 7 requires the secure storage of gathered video surveillance images from forty-eight to seventy-two hours before deleting them unless retrieved for law enforcement use.
-After reading the article, one question that came up is why there are no signs at the parameter of cameras gaze indicating to the public why their personal information is being collected? Yet Section 6 requires this information to be made available.
Another source is listed on the reference page:
Lai, D. (2007). Public video surveillance by the state: Policy, privacy legislation, and the Charter. Alberta Law Review, 45(1), 43-77. doi:10.29173/alr379

Privacy Act, RSC 1985, c P-21. (2021, August 12). Retrieved from
https://www.canlii.org/en/ca/laws/stat/rsc-1985-c-p-21/latest/rsc-1985-c-p-21.html
In-text citation for a paraphrase of the source’s information (Privacy Act, 2021)
In-text citation with page numbers for a direct quote from the source (Privacy Act, 2021, para
1-4)
-Focus of the article: it talks about how Canadian laws are designed to protect its citizens’
Privacy and provide them with a right to access their personal information.
Analysis:
-Every Canadian citizen or permanent resident has a right to access personal data contained in a personal information bank.
The act gives government institutions the power to obtain personal information intended for administrative purposes directly.
-The act also states that “A government institution shall collect no personal information unless it relates directly to an operating system program activity of the institution” (“Privacy Act,” 2021, para. 4).
-The government institution is required to retain personal information it has previously used for a given period to ensure that the owner of the data has a reasonable opportunity to have easy access to the information.
-The act also compels the government not to use personal information without the owner’s consent or for the purpose it was obtained.
-The government cannot disclose personal information without permission from the person it relates to.
Note on the Purpose of the Act
-Its purpose is to “extend the current Canadian laws, which protect individual’s privacy with regard to personal information concerning them held by a government institution and which provide individuals with a right to access their data” (Privacy Act, 2021, para. 2).
My question after reading the article is whether relevant authorities uphold these laws?
Every Canadian expects these laws to keep pace with social and technological change.
-Each person is affected by the Privacy Act and how their data is handled.
Another source is listed on the reference page:
Lai, D. (2007). Public video surveillance by the state: Policy, privacy legislation, and the Charter. Alberta Law Review, 45(1), 43-77. doi:10.29173/alr379

Ratcliffe, J. (2011). Video Surveillance of Public Places. Retrieved from https://cops.usdoj.gov/RIC/Publications/cops-p097-pub.pdf
In-text citation for a paraphrase of the source’s information (Ratcliffe, 2011)
In-text citation with page numbers for a direct quote from the source (Ratcliffe, 2011, pg. 7-35)
-Focus of the article: it provides an overview of the use of surveillance cameras to respond to crime.
Analysis:
-The general public is now accustomed to being monitored by surveillance cameras in several public places.
-Although some people see video surveillance as a mechanism to intrude and invade their privacy, Ratcliffe expounds on the effectiveness of video surveillance and addresses some privacy and constitutional concerns.
-According to the author, video surveillance is not a physical barrier. This means that the system does not limit access to “certain places, make it difficult for a person to be robbed or assaulted, or make something harder to steal” (Ratcliffe, 2011, p. 13).
-However, the video technology seeks to change the perception of the criminal so that the criminal believes that they risk being caught if they commit a crime.
Uses
-Has the potential to reduce the crime rate.
-Assist law enforcers in responding promptly to any suspicious incidents captured by the cameras enabling the criminal justice system to pursue the criminal’s conviction.
-Surveillance cameras operators can contact medical services if they notice a member of the public needs medical assistance.
Note on Evaluation of Surveillance Cameras
-The author opines that numerous studies have examined the perception of the public and video surveillance system managers concerning the technology’s crime prevention benefits.
-The author says, “These perceptions are usually positive, but evidence of actual crime reduction is harder to find” (p. 21).
-It is often challenging to establish whether video surveillance reduces crime because a problem-oriented policing solution is seldom executed without other crime prevention strategies being applied simultaneously.
After reading the article, I question why manufacturers claim unqualified success for the systems while they fail to capture everything? As noted from Ratcliffe’s research, video surveillance systems like open-street CCTV can only perform in limited ways – meaning that the system performs in different ways in different situations.
Another source is listed on the reference page:
Carli, V. (2008). Assessing CCTV as an effective safety and management tool for crime-solving, prevention, and reduction. International Centre for the Prevention of Crime, 1-19. Retrieved from https://cipc-icpc.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/Assessing_CCTV_as_an_effective_safety_and_management_tool_ANG.pdf
Conclusion
To sum up, most governments use surveillance cameras as primary tools to monitor people’s movements and prevent terrorism and crime. Hundreds of public surveillance cameras are installed on streets, parks, hospitals, schools, and other public places to make the country safe. In addition to security and safety, the population also needs freedom and privacy. The government must secure people’s right to privacy when installing surveillance cameras. This technology can be effective without being penetrative or intrusive when technical controls and legal administrative are considered.

Bibliography
Carli, V. (2008). Assessing CCTV as an effective safety and management tool for crime-solving, prevention, and reduction. International Centre for the Prevention of Crime, 1-19. Retrieved from https://cipc-icpc.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/Assessing_CCTV_as_an_effective_safety_and_management_tool_ANG.pdf
Cavoukian, A. (2013). Surveillance, Then and Now: Securing Privacy in Public Spaces. Retrieved from https://www.ipc.on.ca/wp-content/uploads/Resources/pbd-surveillance.pdf
Lai, D. (2007). Public video surveillance by the state: Policy, privacy legislation, and the Charter. Alberta Law Review, 45(1), 43-77. doi:10.29173/alr379
Lippert, R. (2008). Open-Street CCTV Canadian Style. Retrieved from https://www.crimeandjustice.org.uk/sites/crimeandjustice.org.uk/files/09627250708553283.pdf
Privacy Act, RSC 1985, c P-21. (2021, August 12). Retrieved from https://www.canlii.org/en/ca/laws/stat/rsc-1985-c-p-21/latest/rsc-1985-c-p-21.html
Ratcliffe, J. (2011). Video Surveillance of Public Places. Retrieved from https://cops.usdoj.gov/RIC/Publications/cops-p097-pub.pdf

Surveillance Cameras in Public Places
Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliation
Date

Surveillance Cameras in Public Places
Introduction
The idea behind the video surveillance cameras project has been embraced in major Canadian cities and other cities worldwide. Commonplace outside private organizations, apartment buildings, streets, storefronts, underground tunnels, intersections, and parks, surveillance cameras have been widely accepted by the public as an essential technology for their personal safety. Video surveillance or Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) is one of the most common modes of surveillance. The technology uses cameras for surveillance, erected in strategic places by private or public agencies for crime prevention and prosecution. Video surveillance is a multifunctional tool initially used to manage risks associated with crime, accidents, fire, and traffic jams. However, there are conflicting opinions regarding the use of surveillance cameras in public places. Although some quotas believe that the technology should not be used, surveillance cameras can be essential for people’s lives and safety.
Carli, V. (2008). Assessing CCTV as an effective safety and management tool for crime-solving, prevention, and reduction. International Centre for the Prevention of Crime, 1-19. Retrieved from https://cipc-icpc.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/Assessing_CCTV_as_an_effective_safety_and_management_tool_ANG.pdf
In-text citation for a paraphrase of the source’s information (Carli, 2008)
In-text citation with page numbers for a direct quote from the source (Carli, 2008, pg. 4-15)
-The article gives a detailed background and origin of video surveillance.
Analysis:
-The author opines that video technology dates back to the mid-20th century with information and communication technology expansion.
-During this period, surveillance cameras were used mainly in shops, banks, and traffic management.
-The technology began expanding in cities, mainly in the United States and the United Kingdom.
-The United Kingdom is believed to be “the first country to implement video surveillance use, whereby its government installed thousands of surveillance cameras in the 1980s” (Carli, 2008, p. 6).
-1970s saw the mass adoption of surveillance cameras to monitor public places such as schools, parks, hospitals, and so on.
-Video technology began advancing at a significant rate in the 1990s.
Type of Surveillance System in the 1990s
-Digital Multiplexing was a more affordable surveillance system that revolutionized the video surveillance sector in the 1990s.
-The system has features such as “motion-only and time-lapse” that facilitate recording on numerous cameras at once, thus improving recording efficiency (p.6).
Uses of Surveillance Cameras
-Provides warning signs of “potential criminal offences and act as a reactive tool” (p.7).
-Reducing crime rates within targeted areas.
-Builds feelings of security.
-A management tool to administer and monitor “social spaces and transport systems” (p.9).
Note on Surveillance Cameras
-The author has also talked about ethical challenges surrounding the use of surveillance cameras in public places, such as mounting fears of insecurity, the suppression of individual freedoms for the “greater good,” and lack of privacy (p.11).
-The article also discusses existing regulations on the use of surveillance cameras, such as the Data Protection Act, Private Security Industry Act, among others.
-The article has several recommendations for further discussion on the effectiveness of surveillance cameras.
The article is an interesting piece because it gives surveillance cameras’ background, ethical challenges, regulations, and recommendations.
My question after reading the article is why the public is left out when it comes to the regulation and implementation of the technology? The public should be involved because this concerns their privacy and security.
Another source is listed on the reference page:
Ratcliffe, J. (2011). Video Surveillance of Public Places. Retrieved from https://cops.usdoj.gov/RIC/Publications/cops-p097-pub.pdf

Cavoukian, A. (2013). Surveillance, Then and Now: Securing Privacy in Public Spaces. Retrieved from https://www.ipc.on.ca/wp-content/uploads/Resources/pbd-surveillance.pdf
In-text citation for a paraphrase of the source’s information (Cavoukian, 2013)
In-text citation with page numbers for a direct quote from the source (Cavoukian, 2013, pg. 1-49)
-The article educates the broader public, lawmakers, and police in understanding and protecting people’s right to privacy concerning public video surveillance.
Analysis:
-The author argues that the right to privacy does not protect places but people.
-Therefore, as the Canadian government considers the implications of terrorist attacks, the public must consider that public video surveillance can increase efficiencies for law enforcement and the criminal justice system to apprehend illegal activities before they are executed.
-The author claims that there is a need to exercise a proactive approach, highlighting the right to informational privacy owed to all people.
-This way, “their right to privacy in public places can be secure due to the emergence of new technologies such as surveillance cameras” (Cavoukian, 2013, p. 1).
-The author opines that the actual value of confidentiality must be acknowledged and ideally enhanced by relevant stakeholders, not infringed, in any attempt to secure the country.
Note on Proactive Privacy
-The author also discusses the importance of proactive privacy by design approach when formulating and implanting the policy framework required for supervising state-owned surveillance cameras.
-The process will ensure that “confidentiality, transparency, and accountability are entrenched in any proposed video surveillance system” (p. 1).
-The power of the law enforcement agencies to deploy any form of invasive video surveillance technology must be inspected under a system of prior judicial authorization.
-The author insists on the importance of legal mechanisms to ensure the appropriate and accountable use of public video surveillance and other surveillance systems to guarantee public safety and the right to privacy.
My question after reading the article is whether the right to privacy is being respected in this era of new technologies? Video surveillance operators should ensure that they are honest when it comes to any collection of personal data.
Another source is listed on the reference page:
Ratcliffe, J. (2011). Video Surveillance of Public Places. Retrieved from https://cops.usdoj.gov/RIC/Publications/cops-p097-pub.pdf

Lai, D. (2007). Public video surveillance by the state: Policy, privacy legislation, and the Charter. Alberta Law Review, 45(1), 43-77. doi:10.29173/alr379
In-text citation for a paraphrase of the source’s information (Lai, 2007)
In-text citation with page numbers for a direct quote from the source (Lai, 2007, pg. 44-77)
-The article explores the growing phenomenon of video surveillance in public places and how people’s privacy should be protected by Canadian law while providing for effective law enforcement.
-It also explores the negative and positive consequences and modern technological advancements, which challenge law enforcers, legislatures, and courts.
Analysis:
-The author suggests that public video surveillance is a feature of the lives of most people worldwide.
-The public and policymakers should engage in an informed policy debate regarding the effectiveness of surveillance cameras and their impact on privacy.
-Although surveillance cameras reduce instances of crime, the author reckons that the system is “a complex phenomenon whose effectiveness can be challenging to predict” (Lai, 2007, p.77).
-The author insists that it is misleading to say that surveillance cameras will usher in a Big Brother state.
-Therefore, it is crucial to isolate public video surveillance features that infringe on privacy and uncover legal and technological means of reducing such infringements instead of eradicating the surveillance cameras.
Note on Two Case Concerning the use of Surveillance Cameras.
-The author also used two case studies from “Edmonton and Kelowna” to scrutinize the role of provincial and federal privacy legislation while examining Canadian Supreme Court interpretation of s. 8 of the Charter through an examination of jurisprudence relating to public video surveillance system (Lai, 2007, p. 43).
One question that arises is whether the analysis/collection scheme will preserve the effectiveness of public video surveillance while reducing its privacy-intrusive aspects? The author opines that the division of collection/analysis is supposed to reduce the impact on privacy. Therefore, video surveillance on innocent people will not exist because law enforcers will only access video footage based on particularized and reasonable grounds.
Another source is listed on the reference page:
Cavoukian, A. (2013). Surveillance, Then and Now: Securing Privacy in Public Spaces. Retrieved from https://www.ipc.on.ca/wp-content/uploads/Resources/pbd-surveillance.pdf

Lippert, R. (2008). Open-Street CCTV Canadian Style. Retrieved from https://www.crimeandjustice.org.uk/sites/crimeandjustice.org.uk/files/09627250708553283.pdf
In-text citation for a paraphrase of the source’s information (Lippert, 2007)
In-text citation with page numbers for a direct quote from the source (Lippert, 2007, pg. 31-32)
The article’s focus: it describes how Canada embraced the growing number of surveillance cameras in its major cities.
Analysis:
-The author claims that authorities more often use the threat of terrorism, violent incidences, and urban revitalization to justify their resolve to introduce public video surveillance.
-Open-street surveillance cameras can be seen slowly emerging in urban areas across the country in collaboration with “federal and provincial governments as well as municipal government and local police” (Lippert, 2007).
-Most often, surveillance cameras are installed in streets to target anti-social and criminal conduct.
-In some instances, law enforcers are using public video surveillance images to pursue criminal prosecutions.
– The regulation and evaluation of public video surveillance are all embryonic in Canada.
Note on Sections of the Law
-The author claims that sections in Canadian law like Section 4 place responsibility squarely on authorities to demonstrate that “less invasive modes of policing are not viable so that they can justify each surveillance camera through verifiable crime incident reports” (Lippert, 2007, 31).
-Section 6 requires the stakeholders to distribute pamphlets or post signs at the perimeter of the cameras’ gaze, showing members of the public why their data is being collected.
-Section 7 requires the secure storage of gathered video surveillance images from forty-eight to seventy-two hours before deleting them unless retrieved for law enforcement use.
-After reading the article, one question that came up is why there are no signs at the parameter of cameras gaze indicating to the public why their personal information is being collected? Yet Section 6 requires this information to be made available.
Another source is listed on the reference page:
Lai, D. (2007). Public video surveillance by the state: Policy, privacy legislation, and the Charter. Alberta Law Review, 45(1), 43-77. doi:10.29173/alr379

Privacy Act, RSC 1985, c P-21. (2021, August 12). Retrieved from
https://www.canlii.org/en/ca/laws/stat/rsc-1985-c-p-21/latest/rsc-1985-c-p-21.html
In-text citation for a paraphrase of the source’s information (Privacy Act, 2021)
In-text citation with page numbers for a direct quote from the source (Privacy Act, 2021, para
1-4)
-Focus of the article: it talks about how Canadian laws are designed to protect its citizens’
Privacy and provide them with a right to access their personal information.
Analysis:
-Every Canadian citizen or permanent resident has a right to access personal data contained in a personal information bank.
The act gives government institutions the power to obtain personal information intended for administrative purposes directly.
-The act also states that “A government institution shall collect no personal information unless it relates directly to an operating system program activity of the institution” (“Privacy Act,” 2021, para. 4).
-The government institution is required to retain personal information it has previously used for a given period to ensure that the owner of the data has a reasonable opportunity to have easy access to the information.
-The act also compels the government not to use personal information without the owner’s consent or for the purpose it was obtained.
-The government cannot disclose personal information without permission from the person it relates to.
Note on the Purpose of the Act
-Its purpose is to “extend the current Canadian laws, which protect individual’s privacy with regard to personal information concerning them held by a government institution and which provide individuals with a right to access their data” (Privacy Act, 2021, para. 2).
My question after reading the article is whether relevant authorities uphold these laws?
Every Canadian expects these laws to keep pace with social and technological change.
-Each person is affected by the Privacy Act and how their data is handled.
Another source is listed on the reference page:
Lai, D. (2007). Public video surveillance by the state: Policy, privacy legislation, and the Charter. Alberta Law Review, 45(1), 43-77. doi:10.29173/alr379

Ratcliffe, J. (2011). Video Surveillance of Public Places. Retrieved from https://cops.usdoj.gov/RIC/Publications/cops-p097-pub.pdf
In-text citation for a paraphrase of the source’s information (Ratcliffe, 2011)
In-text citation with page numbers for a direct quote from the source (Ratcliffe, 2011, pg. 7-35)
-Focus of the article: it provides an overview of the use of surveillance cameras to respond to crime.
Analysis:
-The general public is now accustomed to being monitored by surveillance cameras in several public places.
-Although some people see video surveillance as a mechanism to intrude and invade their privacy, Ratcliffe expounds on the effectiveness of video surveillance and addresses some privacy and constitutional concerns.
-According to the author, video surveillance is not a physical barrier. This means that the system does not limit access to “certain places, make it difficult for a person to be robbed or assaulted, or make something harder to steal” (Ratcliffe, 2011, p. 13).
-However, the video technology seeks to change the perception of the criminal so that the criminal believes that they risk being caught if they commit a crime.
Uses
-Has the potential to reduce the crime rate.
-Assist law enforcers in responding promptly to any suspicious incidents captured by the cameras enabling the criminal justice system to pursue the criminal’s conviction.
-Surveillance cameras operators can contact medical services if they notice a member of the public needs medical assistance.
Note on Evaluation of Surveillance Cameras
-The author opines that numerous studies have examined the perception of the public and video surveillance system managers concerning the technology’s crime prevention benefits.
-The author says, “These perceptions are usually positive, but evidence of actual crime reduction is harder to find” (p. 21).
-It is often challenging to establish whether video surveillance reduces crime because a problem-oriented policing solution is seldom executed without other crime prevention strategies being applied simultaneously.
After reading the article, I question why manufacturers claim unqualified success for the systems while they fail to capture everything? As noted from Ratcliffe’s research, video surveillance systems like open-street CCTV can only perform in limited ways – meaning that the system performs in different ways in different situations.
Another source is listed on the reference page:
Carli, V. (2008). Assessing CCTV as an effective safety and management tool for crime-solving, prevention, and reduction. International Centre for the Prevention of Crime, 1-19. Retrieved from https://cipc-icpc.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/Assessing_CCTV_as_an_effective_safety_and_management_tool_ANG.pdf
Conclusion
To sum up, most governments use surveillance cameras as primary tools to monitor people’s movements and prevent terrorism and crime. Hundreds of public surveillance cameras are installed on streets, parks, hospitals, schools, and other public places to make the country safe. In addition to security and safety, the population also needs freedom and privacy. The government must secure people’s right to privacy when installing surveillance cameras. This technology can be effective without being penetrative or intrusive when technical controls and legal administrative are considered.

Bibliography
Carli, V. (2008). Assessing CCTV as an effective safety and management tool for crime-solving, prevention, and reduction. International Centre for the Prevention of Crime, 1-19. Retrieved from https://cipc-icpc.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/Assessing_CCTV_as_an_effective_safety_and_management_tool_ANG.pdf
Cavoukian, A. (2013). Surveillance, Then and Now: Securing Privacy in Public Spaces. Retrieved from https://www.ipc.on.ca/wp-content/uploads/Resources/pbd-surveillance.pdf
Lai, D. (2007). Public video surveillance by the state: Policy, privacy legislation, and the Charter. Alberta Law Review, 45(1), 43-77. doi:10.29173/alr379
Lippert, R. (2008). Open-Street CCTV Canadian Style. Retrieved from https://www.crimeandjustice.org.uk/sites/crimeandjustice.org.uk/files/09627250708553283.pdf
Privacy Act, RSC 1985, c P-21. (2021, August 12). Retrieved from https://www.canlii.org/en/ca/laws/stat/rsc-1985-c-p-21/latest/rsc-1985-c-p-21.html
Ratcliffe, J. (2011). Video Surveillance of Public Places. Retrieved from https://cops.usdoj.gov/RIC/Publications/cops-p097-pub.pdf

●The current setup ONLY powers; one server ¬(ProLiant ML350 Gen9), one PABX (Panasonic KX-TES824), one switch (D-Link DGS-1024D), and two routers(10W Each) in an instance of powThe current setup is capable of powering; one Server ¬(ProLiant ML350 Gen9), One PABX (Panasonic KX-TES824), Ten Laptops(50W Each), One Switch (D-Link DGS-1024D), Two Routers(10W Each), Three TP-Link Range Extender(7W Each) and Charging of ten phones for a backup time of six hours. One Printer (HP LaserJet 1536dnf MFP) can be used in the six hours for a period of 30mins.
NOTE: Additional equipment apart from the above noted should not be connected to the current backup setup without prior advise. Overload to the Inverter/Charger would damage it.er loss.
According to the Brennan Center, the primary method used today to suppress the voters is “Erecting new barriers to the Ballot box” (Johnson, 2020). Many states in the country have passed various laws that directly restrict people on their right to vote. The restrictions come in various ways, such as the prerequisite of having an ID. Today voters must present a Government-issued ID to be able to vote. This specific law has been proven to be a burden because studies have revealed that although people think that most Americans have IDs, the reality is millions of Americans do not possess IDs, especially Black people. This is evident when the district court of North Dakota discovered that 19 % of Native Americans lacked IDs, compared to 12% of other voters (Johnson, 202). The requirement of possessing IDs as a condition to vote varies from one state to another, some sates allows handgun licenses to vote but not allowing student’s ID. Another method of suppression is the need for matching names on registration records and on approved forms of identification (Levit, 2007). These restrictions have locked out a lot of Americans from voting, especially people of color. Many people upon reaching the ballot box, find their names either wrongly matched. This restricts them from voting. The early voting also has been significantly contributing to voter’s suppression; besides millions of people are restricted from voting because of a criminal conviction (Wendy et al., 2021). Although the laws on offender’s right to vote differ from one state to the other, a significant amount of citizens are suppressed on their voting rights because of criminal conviction.
The causes for voter’s suppression as discussed in class are restriction placed on voter’s registration. There are tough terms and conditions placed upon registering as a voter, they can include; documents to prove citizenship, limited time of registering and also voter’s fraud. Voter’s fraud occurs during the whole process of election, from pending voters, where voters are listed to not have voted for the last years and cannot be found, to political parties closing polling stations. Although voter’s fraud is paramount, it is hardly reported by the media, or when it is, the reporting is of biases and not disclosing the whole truth (Erickson, 2020). With lack of information, voter suppression surges. Another cause for voter’s suppression is the highly discouragement of voter’s participation due to harsh treatments like denying voters access to food and water. For example in Georgia, there is a law that forbids giving voters standing on the long lines food and water(“ACLU news & commentary,” 2021 ).Voters purge also causes suppression, as the cleaning process of voters might caught people unaware that they aren’t eligible to vote when they surprisingly find their names deleted on the rolls.
In my opinion, voter’s suppression is a great threat to democracy. Democracy entails running a government where the system is inclusive of all, with members of the government being elected by the people. There is no democracy if citizens of a country are denied or overpowered to their civil rights. I think voter’s suppression directly affects this civil rights, which constitutes democracy. Suppression promotes discrimination at a heightened level, especially with all the restriction of voting affecting the majority of people of color. All across different states, lawmakers are constantly making it harder for African Americans and other minorities to vote; from restrictive requirements such as Government ID, voter’s purges to the marginalization of people with criminal background. If Voter’s suppression is not capped, it will continue to pose as a great threat to democracy, which eventually will eliminate a democratic system of government.

Summary of an Audit Issue Research

Student’s Name
Course Title
Institutional Affiliation
Instructor’s Name
Due Date

Summary of an Audit Issue Research

The research study reviewed in this summary is” The Impact of Audit Committee and External Auditor Characteristics on financial Reporting Quality among Malaysian Firms” by Aram Jawar and Dler Ahmed. The audit article mainly looks into how the audit committee and the external auditors determine the quality of a financial report. The authors further argue that in the capital markets, the financial reports mainly determine a market’s valuation, and thus audit is a vital component. The research is based on Malaysian top 100 performing firms according to the Bursa stock exchange market in 2014.
The article mainly looks into the audit issues but, more specifically, the impact that the audit committee and the external auditors have on the quality of the financial reports. The article states that financial reports play a critical role in ensuring proper wealth transfer and valuation of financial instruments and companies. Poor reporting results in inefficient wealth transfer and losses while trading in the financial markets(Jawhar et al.& Ahmed et al., 2017). Thus, the audit committee and external auditors are the primary players in financial reporting. Audit issues are common in businesses, including those that do not have an audit committee. We can see the quality of financial reports we will achieve by looking at the characteristics of the audit committee and the external auditors.
The expected or predicted outcome of this research study is that if there is an efficient audit committee and external auditors, the financial reports will be of high quality. Poor financial reports are the result of an ineffective corporate board. An external auditor’s primary responsibility is to review a company’s financial information and report on the findings(Jawhar et al.& Ahmed et al., 2017). Another responsibility is to investigate financial reports for errors and fraud and perform audit operations and make recommendations. The audit committee oversees the audit process’s financial reporting process and collaborates with the external auditors during the auditing process. As a result, the quality of financial reports is determined by these key players. As a result, the rationale is based on the roles assigned to the audit committee and the external auditors.
The correlation method is primarily used in the research study. It is clear because the study seeks to determine the relationship between audit committee characteristics such as independence, expertise, and diligence, and external auditor characteristics such as large audit firms, industry leaders, and financial reporting quality of Malaysia’s top 100 listed companies in 2014(Jawhar et al.& Ahmed et al., 2017). The audit committee characteristics and the external auditors’ characteristics are independent variables, while the financial reporting quality is the dependent variable. They employed a regression model as well as a descriptive analysis of the variables in the study.
The examination of the top 100 Malaysian companies from the Bursa Malaysia revealed estimation results that all included explanatory variables, except for external auditor large firm, have a substantial influence on financial reporting quality. This demonstrates that large audit firms’ external auditors have almost no impact on the quality of financial reports.Though previous articles focused on the audit committee’s characteristics and their impact on the quality of financial reports, this study goes a step further and examines the external auditors’ characteristics and their impact on the quality of financial reports.
Other research studies have found that the big four audit firms have a significant relationship with financial reporting quality. This is in contrast to current research, which indicates that extensive audits have little impact on financial reporting quality. Except for the findings of the large audit firms, all of the findings are supported by previous research.
The study had many limitations, which must be analyzed to give more conclusive outcomes. To reduce estimation errors, the sample size must be increased to accurately estimate the population means. As a result, the study tested the effect of some factors on financial reporting quality; therefore, additional factors that influence financial reporting quality in the Malaysian context should be considered in future studies to provide more insight and efficacy.
Only if the research has never been conducted in that country should a similar methodology be used. To reduce errors, the sample size in future studies should be increased if more annual reports are available(Jawhar et al.& Ahmed et al., 2017). Another limitation is the study’s low comparison consideration. In this concept, different models of measuring and estimating the influence on financial reporting quality are used, or models from other studies are combined, allowing comparison of the current results.
The final limitation is that the study did not consider the relationship between the audit committee’s size and the external auditor’s tenure on the audit committee about financial reporting quality. The size of the audit committee provides insight into the organization and workload. The external auditor’s audit committee tenure outlines the conditions and rules that auditors are expected to follow, as well as the disciplinary measures that will be imposed if they do not. The results are more in-depth and conclusive as a result of considering this in the study.
The study provides in-depth research on the Malaysia report concerning the quality of financial reports and the factors that influence them.(Jawhar et al.& Ahmed et al., 2017) The information can be used by investors and the general public to value the various firms they wish to trade on the Bursa Malaysia stock exchange market. The study is critical in examining and improving the external auditors’ and audit committee’s performance in order to provide quality financial reporting.
In conclusion, because audit issues affect many parts of the economic system, research on this topic has a significant impact on the financial market. The study provides an overview of the relationship between external auditors, audit committees, and financial report quality. The study includes correlational studies to determine the relationship between them, as well as additional insight into the importance of quality financial reports, as demonstrated in the review.While specifying the variables, the study looks into previous research on audit issues. Understanding the impact of external auditors and the audit committee on ensuring transparency and quality financial reports is important because financial reports play a significant role in the capital markets.

References
Jawhar, A., & Ahmed, D. (2017). (PDF) The impact of audit committee and external auditor … Retrieved October 11, 2021, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/326521944_The_Impact_of_Audit_Committee_and_External_Auditor_Characteristics_on_Financial_Reporting_Quality_among_Malaysian_Firms.

Surveillance Cameras in Public Places
Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliation
Date

Surveillance Cameras in Public Places
Introduction
The idea behind the video surveillance cameras project has been embraced in major Canadian cities and other cities worldwide. Commonplace outside private organizations, apartment buildings, streets, storefronts, underground tunnels, intersections, and parks, surveillance cameras have been widely accepted by the public as an essential technology for their personal safety. Video surveillance or Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) is one of the most common modes of surveillance. The technology uses cameras for surveillance, erected in strategic places by private or public agencies for crime prevention and prosecution. Video surveillance is a multifunctional tool initially used to manage risks associated with crime, accidents, fire, and traffic jams. However, there are conflicting opinions regarding the use of surveillance cameras in public places. Although some quotas believe that the technology should not be used, surveillance cameras can be essential for people’s lives and safety.
Carli, V. (2008). Assessing CCTV as an effective safety and management tool for crime-solving, prevention, and reduction. International Centre for the Prevention of Crime, 1-19. Retrieved from https://cipc-icpc.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/Assessing_CCTV_as_an_effective_safety_and_management_tool_ANG.pdf
In-text citation for a paraphrase of the source’s information (Carli, 2008)
In-text citation with page numbers for a direct quote from the source (Carli, 2008, pg. 4-15)
-The article gives a detailed background and origin of video surveillance.
Analysis:
-The author opines that video technology dates back to the mid-20th century with information and communication technology expansion.
-During this period, surveillance cameras were used mainly in shops, banks, and traffic management.
-The technology began expanding in cities, mainly in the United States and the United Kingdom.
-The United Kingdom is believed to be “the first country to implement video surveillance use, whereby its government installed thousands of surveillance cameras in the 1980s” (Carli, 2008, p. 6).
-1970s saw the mass adoption of surveillance cameras to monitor public places such as schools, parks, hospitals, and so on.
-Video technology began advancing at a significant rate in the 1990s.
Type of Surveillance System in the 1990s
-Digital Multiplexing was a more affordable surveillance system that revolutionized the video surveillance sector in the 1990s.
-The system has features such as “motion-only and time-lapse” that facilitate recording on numerous cameras at once, thus improving recording efficiency (p.6).
Uses of Surveillance Cameras
-Provides warning signs of “potential criminal offences and act as a reactive tool” (p.7).
-Reducing crime rates within targeted areas.
-Builds feelings of security.
-A management tool to administer and monitor “social spaces and transport systems” (p.9).
Note on Surveillance Cameras
-The author has also talked about ethical challenges surrounding the use of surveillance cameras in public places, such as mounting fears of insecurity, the suppression of individual freedoms for the “greater good,” and lack of privacy (p.11).
-The article also discusses existing regulations on the use of surveillance cameras, such as the Data Protection Act, Private Security Industry Act, among others.
-The article has several recommendations for further discussion on the effectiveness of surveillance cameras.
The article is an interesting piece because it gives surveillance cameras’ background, ethical challenges, regulations, and recommendations.
My question after reading the article is why the public is left out when it comes to the regulation and implementation of the technology? The public should be involved because this concerns their privacy and security.
Another source is listed on the reference page:
Ratcliffe, J. (2011). Video Surveillance of Public Places. Retrieved from https://cops.usdoj.gov/RIC/Publications/cops-p097-pub.pdf

Cavoukian, A. (2013). Surveillance, Then and Now: Securing Privacy in Public Spaces. Retrieved from https://www.ipc.on.ca/wp-content/uploads/Resources/pbd-surveillance.pdf
In-text citation for a paraphrase of the source’s information (Cavoukian, 2013)
In-text citation with page numbers for a direct quote from the source (Cavoukian, 2013, pg. 1-49)
-The article educates the broader public, lawmakers, and police in understanding and protecting people’s right to privacy concerning public video surveillance.
Analysis:
-The author argues that the right to privacy does not protect places but people.
-Therefore, as the Canadian government considers the implications of terrorist attacks, the public must consider that public video surveillance can increase efficiencies for law enforcement and the criminal justice system to apprehend illegal activities before they are executed.
-The author claims that there is a need to exercise a proactive approach, highlighting the right to informational privacy owed to all people.
-This way, “their right to privacy in public places can be secure due to the emergence of new technologies such as surveillance cameras” (Cavoukian, 2013, p. 1).
-The author opines that the actual value of confidentiality must be acknowledged and ideally enhanced by relevant stakeholders, not infringed, in any attempt to secure the country.
Note on Proactive Privacy
-The author also discusses the importance of proactive privacy by design approach when formulating and implanting the policy framework required for supervising state-owned surveillance cameras.
-The process will ensure that “confidentiality, transparency, and accountability are entrenched in any proposed video surveillance system” (p. 1).
-The power of the law enforcement agencies to deploy any form of invasive video surveillance technology must be inspected under a system of prior judicial authorization.
-The author insists on the importance of legal mechanisms to ensure the appropriate and accountable use of public video surveillance and other surveillance systems to guarantee public safety and the right to privacy.
My question after reading the article is whether the right to privacy is being respected in this era of new technologies? Video surveillance operators should ensure that they are honest when it comes to any collection of personal data.
Another source is listed on the reference page:
Ratcliffe, J. (2011). Video Surveillance of Public Places. Retrieved from https://cops.usdoj.gov/RIC/Publications/cops-p097-pub.pdf

Lai, D. (2007). Public video surveillance by the state: Policy, privacy legislation, and the Charter. Alberta Law Review, 45(1), 43-77. doi:10.29173/alr379
In-text citation for a paraphrase of the source’s information (Lai, 2007)
In-text citation with page numbers for a direct quote from the source (Lai, 2007, pg. 44-77)
-The article explores the growing phenomenon of video surveillance in public places and how people’s privacy should be protected by Canadian law while providing for effective law enforcement.
-It also explores the negative and positive consequences and modern technological advancements, which challenge law enforcers, legislatures, and courts.
Analysis:
-The author suggests that public video surveillance is a feature of the lives of most people worldwide.
-The public and policymakers should engage in an informed policy debate regarding the effectiveness of surveillance cameras and their impact on privacy.
-Although surveillance cameras reduce instances of crime, the author reckons that the system is “a complex phenomenon whose effectiveness can be challenging to predict” (Lai, 2007, p.77).
-The author insists that it is misleading to say that surveillance cameras will usher in a Big Brother state.
-Therefore, it is crucial to isolate public video surveillance features that infringe on privacy and uncover legal and technological means of reducing such infringements instead of eradicating the surveillance cameras.
Note on Two Case Concerning the use of Surveillance Cameras.
-The author also used two case studies from “Edmonton and Kelowna” to scrutinize the role of provincial and federal privacy legislation while examining Canadian Supreme Court interpretation of s. 8 of the Charter through an examination of jurisprudence relating to public video surveillance system (Lai, 2007, p. 43).
One question that arises is whether the analysis/collection scheme will preserve the effectiveness of public video surveillance while reducing its privacy-intrusive aspects? The author opines that the division of collection/analysis is supposed to reduce the impact on privacy. Therefore, video surveillance on innocent people will not exist because law enforcers will only access video footage based on particularized and reasonable grounds.
Another source is listed on the reference page:
Cavoukian, A. (2013). Surveillance, Then and Now: Securing Privacy in Public Spaces. Retrieved from https://www.ipc.on.ca/wp-content/uploads/Resources/pbd-surveillance.pdf

Lippert, R. (2008). Open-Street CCTV Canadian Style. Retrieved from https://www.crimeandjustice.org.uk/sites/crimeandjustice.org.uk/files/09627250708553283.pdf
In-text citation for a paraphrase of the source’s information (Lippert, 2007)
In-text citation with page numbers for a direct quote from the source (Lippert, 2007, pg. 31-32)
The article’s focus: it describes how Canada embraced the growing number of surveillance cameras in its major cities.
Analysis:
-The author claims that authorities more often use the threat of terrorism, violent incidences, and urban revitalization to justify their resolve to introduce public video surveillance.
-Open-street surveillance cameras can be seen slowly emerging in urban areas across the country in collaboration with “federal and provincial governments as well as municipal government and local police” (Lippert, 2007).
-Most often, surveillance cameras are installed in streets to target anti-social and criminal conduct.
-In some instances, law enforcers are using public video surveillance images to pursue criminal prosecutions.
– The regulation and evaluation of public video surveillance are all embryonic in Canada.
Note on Sections of the Law
-The author claims that sections in Canadian law like Section 4 place responsibility squarely on authorities to demonstrate that “less invasive modes of policing are not viable so that they can justify each surveillance camera through verifiable crime incident reports” (Lippert, 2007, 31).
-Section 6 requires the stakeholders to distribute pamphlets or post signs at the perimeter of the cameras’ gaze, showing members of the public why their data is being collected.
-Section 7 requires the secure storage of gathered video surveillance images from forty-eight to seventy-two hours before deleting them unless retrieved for law enforcement use.
-After reading the article, one question that came up is why there are no signs at the parameter of cameras gaze indicating to the public why their personal information is being collected? Yet Section 6 requires this information to be made available.
Another source is listed on the reference page:
Lai, D. (2007). Public video surveillance by the state: Policy, privacy legislation, and the Charter. Alberta Law Review, 45(1), 43-77. doi:10.29173/alr379

Privacy Act, RSC 1985, c P-21. (2021, August 12). Retrieved from
https://www.canlii.org/en/ca/laws/stat/rsc-1985-c-p-21/latest/rsc-1985-c-p-21.html
In-text citation for a paraphrase of the source’s information (Privacy Act, 2021)
In-text citation with page numbers for a direct quote from the source (Privacy Act, 2021, para
1-4)
-Focus of the article: it talks about how Canadian laws are designed to protect its citizens’
Privacy and provide them with a right to access their personal information.
Analysis:
-Every Canadian citizen or permanent resident has a right to access personal data contained in a personal information bank.
The act gives government institutions the power to directly obtain personal information intended for administrative purposes.
-The act also states that “A government institution shall collect no personal information unless it relates directly to an operating system program activity of the institution” (“Privacy Act,” 2021, para. 4).
-The government institution is required to retain personal information it has previously used for a given period to ensure that the owner of the data has a reasonable opportunity to have easy access to the information.
-The act also compels the government not to use personal information without the owner’s consent or for the purpose it was obtained.
-The government cannot disclose personal information without permission from the person it relates to.
Note on the Purpose of the Act
-Its purpose is to “extend the current Canadian laws, which protect individual’s privacy with regard to personal information concerning them held by a government institution and which provide individuals with a right to access their data” (Privacy Act, 2021, para. 2).
My question after reading the article is whether relevant authorities uphold these laws?
Every Canadian expects these laws to keep pace with social and technological change.
-Each person is affected by the Privacy Act and how their data is handled.
Another source is listed on the reference page:
Lai, D. (2007). Public video surveillance by the state: Policy, privacy legislation, and the Charter. Alberta Law Review, 45(1), 43-77. doi:10.29173/alr379

Ratcliffe, J. (2011). Video Surveillance of Public Places. Retrieved from https://cops.usdoj.gov/RIC/Publications/cops-p097-pub.pdf
In-text citation for a paraphrase of the source’s information (Ratcliffe, 2011)
In-text citation with page numbers for a direct quote from the source (Ratcliffe, 2011, pg. 7-35)
-Focus of the article: it provides an overview of the use of surveillance cameras to respond to crime.
Analysis:
-The general public is now accustomed to being monitored by surveillance cameras in several public places.
-Although some people see video surveillance as a mechanism to intrude and invade their privacy, Ratcliffe expounds on the effectiveness of video surveillance and addresses some privacy and constitutional concerns.
-According to the author, video surveillance is not a physical barrier. This means that the system does not limit access to “certain places, make it difficult for a person to be robbed or assaulted, or make something harder to steal” (Ratcliffe, 2011, p. 13).
-However, the video technology seeks to change the perception of the criminal so that the criminal believes that they risk being caught if they commit a crime.
Uses
-Has the potential to reduce the crime rate.
-Assist law enforcers in responding promptly to any suspicious incidents captured by the cameras enabling the criminal justice system to pursue the criminal’s conviction.
-Surveillance cameras operators can contact medical services if they notice a member of the public needs medical assistance.
Note on Evaluation of Surveillance Cameras
-The author opines that numerous studies have examined the perception of the public and video surveillance system managers in regard to the technology’s crime prevention benefits.
-The author says “These perceptions are usually positive, but evidence of actual crime reduction is harder to find” (p. 21).
-It is often challenging to establish whether video surveillance reduces crime because a problem-oriented policing solution is seldom executed without other crime prevention strategies being applied simultaneously.
My question after reading the article is why do manufacturers claim unqualified success for the systems while in the real sense they fail to captures everything? As noted from Ratcliffe’s research, video surveillance systems like open-street CCTV can only perform in limited ways – meaning that the system performs in different ways in different situations.
Another source listed in the reference page:
Carli, V. (2008). Assessing CCTV as an effective safety and management tool for crime-solving, prevention, and reduction. International Centre for the Prevention of Crime, 1-19. Retrieved from https://cipc-icpc.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/Assessing_CCTV_as_an_effective_safety_and_management_tool_ANG.pdf
Conclusion
To sum up, most governments use surveillance cameras as primary tools to monitor people’s movements and prevent terrorism and crime. Hundreds of public surveillance cameras are installed on streets, parks, hospitals, schools, and other public places to make the country safe. In addition to security and safety, the population also needs freedom and privacy. The government must secure people’s right to privacy when installing surveillance cameras. This technology can be effective without being penetrative or intrusive when technical controls and legal administrative are considered.

Bibliography
Carli, V. (2008). Assessing CCTV as an effective safety and management tool for crime-solving, prevention, and reduction. International Centre for the Prevention of Crime, 1-19. Retrieved from https://cipc-icpc.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/Assessing_CCTV_as_an_effective_safety_and_management_tool_ANG.pdf
Cavoukian, A. (2013). Surveillance, Then and Now: Securing Privacy in Public Spaces. Retrieved from https://www.ipc.on.ca/wp-content/uploads/Resources/pbd-surveillance.pdf
Lai, D. (2007). Public video surveillance by the state: Policy, privacy legislation, and the Charter. Alberta Law Review, 45(1), 43-77. doi:10.29173/alr379
Lippert, R. (2008). Open-Street CCTV Canadian Style. Retrieved from https://www.crimeandjustice.org.uk/sites/crimeandjustice.org.uk/files/09627250708553283.pdf
Privacy Act, RSC 1985, c P-21. (2021, August 12). Retrieved from https://www.canlii.org/en/ca/laws/stat/rsc-1985-c-p-21/latest/rsc-1985-c-p-21.html
Ratcliffe, J. (2011). Video Surveillance of Public Places. Retrieved from https://cops.usdoj.gov/RIC/Publications/cops-p097-pub.pdf

END OF GOUT OVERVIEW
Do your joints feel stiff all the time? Or do your limbs suffer from intense unexplainable pain that is never-ending? There are high chances you’re suffering from gout. Gout is an incapacitating kind of arthritis that’s suffered by plenty of people across the globe. This disease is frequently associated with diet and other variables, including age and body weight, characterized by agonizing pain. Besides, it’s not that effortless to deal with if you don’t have a reliable way to overcome it.
What is End of Gout about?
This is an eBook that offers you all the information you need to fight gout, including its cause, diagnosis, symptoms, and treatment. Plus, it provides you with details of health enhancement once you’re okay.
The End of Gout is an all-inclusive guide published by Blue Heron Health News and has been through various tests and a lot of research before being published. Moreover, it explains to the reader how the leading cause of gout is not because your body has excess uric acid. Truth be told, gout is caused by the ineffective removal of uric acid by the body.
The immobility and pain are well-explained, from what causes it to how to treat it. And you get all this information from the comfort of your home.
Furthermore, this eBook is easy to read and implement, and fortunately, you don’t need to have a degree in science to understand the strategies and tips written.
How does it work, and what benefits do you get?
The End of Gout program gives you exceptional information to get rid of excess uric acid in your body and hinder the formation of uric acid crystals in the joints.
Here you’ll find out the ways through which you can boost your immune system to hinder gout from causing too much pain. Again, it offers you an opportunity to boost the good gut bacterial and shield you against this condition.
Additionally, End of Gout gives a list of ingredients that you can incorporate in your daily diet to have healthy, good gut bacteria to boost your bodily functions to begin living healthy and avoid having gout and other health conditions.
What’s more, in this diet changes and information lies the opportunity to deal with conditions like irritable bowel movement, type II diabetes, heart condition, obesity, kidney disease, etc.
Besides this, here are some benefits of following the End of Gout program;
• It’ll put an end to your gout
• You won’t need to use painkillers and other medication for gout
• You’ll never have to wake up in the middle of the night due to gout attacks
• You’ll be leading a healthier lifestyle
• Your kidney and gut health will improve significantly
• A healthy lifestyle translates to losing weight
• Most inflammation-linked conditions will vanish within no time
• Your body will be able to digest food better
What’s inside the package?
When you buy this eBook, there are no additional products, just the eBook.
About the author
Shelly Manning is the author of this fine book. She is a health practitioner, and it took her almost 30 years of research in Europe and the USA to develop this program.
Moreover, the End of Gout program was tested again on various people with gout, who found them helpful.
Shelly Manning has a swell developed various programs by integrating Blue Heron health. Plus, all her programs are natural and they don’t feature supplements or chemicals.
Pros & cons
Pros
• This program is easy to read, understand and follow
• The remedies included in the program are entirely natural
• This eBook features everything you need to eliminate gout naturally and completely
• The End of Gout book features the most suitable methods and effective approaches to deal with gout
• It deals with gout from the source
Cons
• You have to follow it consistently for best results
• Individual results may be different depending on gout and the body’s condition.
Summary
its about time you take your health seriously, and make healthy changes. You’ve gone through the agonizing pain of gout disease and have taken more than enough medication, and it never seems to end.
You can’t live like this. The End of Gout eBook is the solution to all your gout problems. You should definitely try it out. Besides, it is a natural and effortless remedy to follow. Most people have reported significant improvement in their gouts within the first 14 days of use, and their condition had vanished by the second month.

Shaping is a procedure used in acquiring new behaviors, and it needs a systematic approach to be effective. There is differential reinforcement for every behavior close to the target behavior (Cooper et al., 2021). Shaping occurs in three parts whereby first, a change in the learner’s environment is detected, and the change is evaluated if it is a closer approximation to the target behavior. If yes, then a differential reinforcement is delivered. This can be seen in graphs 2 and 3, where reinforcements were delivered for each performance of the target behavior.
Behavior chaining refers to procedures used to link a series of behaviors to produce a new terminal outcome (Cooper et al., 2021). The behavior chain consists of a particular discrete sequence of responses, and the performance of each behavior in the series produces a reinforcement of the following response. For example, in graphs 2 and 3, reinforcements are delivered for each bar press. Therefore, the responses must follow a specific order for them to be effective.
Shaping across topography refers to differential reinforcement of selected participants of a response class while members of other response classes undergo extinction (Cooper et al., 2021). The perfect example of the response class, in this case, is speaking. This class has several behaviours, including lip movement, tongue movements, speech utterances, one-word sounds, and finally, speaking sentences.
Shaping within topography is where behavior is maintained, while differential reinforcement is provided for another assessable measurement of the behavior (Cooper et al., 2021). A good example is in training children to play football. One of the training aspects is passing the ball to a team player. The coach can shape accurate passing in that every pass to a team member’s leg is praised while a wide pass is not reinforced.
Shaping can be used as a teaching technique to improve the ability of a student to acquire a new skill. It is an essential process since the instructor can only reinforce the behavior when it occurs. For the procedure to be effective, a teacher needs to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the student and then develop a step-wise and systematic procedure.
However, this procedure is time-consuming as it may involve many step-wise approximations before the terminal behavior is attained. Moreover, the progression towards the target behavior is not linear, and the progress can be unpredictable. Therefore, a teacher will have to closely monitor the student’s progress to detect any delicate variations in the student’s responses.
AMC standards for Asset Management Company and refers to an organization that makes investments of aggregated funds from customers ensures that the invested capital is put to different roles through distinct vestments such as bonds, actual estates, stocks and other fundamental investments. Moreover, AMC manages the invested capital and pension arrangement to serve investors effectively (Hayes, 2020).
AMC Entertainment Holdings is a commercial organization that performs its activities by using two segments that involve International marts and the United States marts. AMCE Entertainment Holding has reported bonds price increase despite the issue of debt burdens. Investors claim that stock increases can assist those who hold bonds for big indebted organizations that are essential to a level that can make the organisation’s operations generate profit. AMC has taken the essential step of monetizing and selling its shares to increase stock and pay some debt. AMC’s bonds are significant from the meme-stock, and when they are sold, they help repay debt (Scaggs, 2021). Currently, investors that changed AMC bonds to stock form view the value of the organization slide to thirty percent within hours. However, investors consider having their finances in five-star funds hence not within a one- or two start funds. Therefore, these investors need to depend on Morningstar’s examinations when establishing investment choices.
In bringing a product or service to the market, every organization is always required to make different choices pertaining to the production, availability, pricing, and promotion of the products and services to be sold. Identifying and arranging these elements influences the success of any organization because it allows the business to make effective decisions that assist the business in becoming more competitive and adaptive in its market. Though our organization may appear as a non-organization whose objective is to offer assistance to adults who want to maintain their independence but need extra support, it must develop key marketing decisions concerning the services it will be providing, the availability of these services, how they will be priced, and how to promote these services for the organization to remain competitive and profitable.
Product
Our organization, dubbed “The Village,” seeks to offer assistance to adults who want to maintain their independence but need extra support. Our facility is also staffed to meet the needs of residents with more severe health challenges. Some of the services that the facility will provide will include respite care services; 24-hour cafe offering three full meals, a chapel with a chaplain, staff gerontologist services, case management, and social services; physical, occupational, and speech therapy services, recreational activities such as planned outings, barber and beauty shop services and palliative and end of life care.
Place
The organization will be located in St. James, LA, or anywhere in the River Parishes area, with plans to expand into other rural communities across the state of Louisiana. This location was chosen after series of thorough assessments was done where we found out that most elderly people living in these locations always have challenges in accessing the above-mentioned services because of inaccessibility of the areas and also because of the mismatch between the demand and supply of these services which has seen most elderly people succumbing to various health challenges that are both treatable or manageable.
Price
We understand that pricing is a double-edged sword and should therefore be taken with great care. This is because if the organization charges higher prices on the services it will be offering, it may provide high-quality services but serve a limited number of customers. At the same time, if the organization charges low prices, it will not generate enough profit to finance its daily operation and expansion expenditure. After a critical analysis of the market trends and pricing by other rival organizations, the Village will require its customers to pay an annual fee of $10,000, which will enable them to access every service provided by the organization based on their demand. The organization is convinced that this is a favorable and affordable price that will enable it to stay afloat and at the same time be in a position to provide quality healthcare services to its targeted customers.
Promotion
Our organization will adopt promotion strategies to inform potential customers about our healthcare services and persuade them to buy these services. To achieve this, the organization will implement an effective promotion mix that will result in good sales and promote the acceptance and recognition of the organization’s services in the market. One promotional strategy that the firm seeks to use is advertising through various online platforms such as Facebook and Instagram. With the increasing number of online users across the globe, we are convinced that using social media and other online platforms is one of the best ways to reach out to many people. Since the organization will still be new in the market, there will be a need to undertake personal selling in which it will hire experienced marketers to go out and inform the masses about the organization’s services. Additionally, the organization will rely on sales promotion, public relations, and direct marketing as additional promotional strategies to promote its brand awareness amongst the targeted customers.
CORPORATIONS LAW
FINAL ASSESSMENT

Psychiatric diagnoses are short short-hand mental illness and experiences, such as depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorder, psychosis, schizophrenia, personality disorder, and OCD. Psychological disorder and mental illness diagnoses and treatments are different from other health diagnoses and treatments. Some researchers, such as XYZ, argue that psychiatric diagnoses entail interviewing a patient’s history on symptoms of psychological disorder and ZYX suggest that psychiatric diagnoses incorporate medical tests on a patient to rule out possible physical ailments, but blood tests and biometric data cannot evaluate the mental health of an individual. The essay investigates psychiatric diagnoses and how it is different from other health diagnoses. First, the essay focuses on reflecting on the pros and cons of psychiatric diagnoses. Secondly, the essay reflects on how psychiatric diagnoses is different from other health diagnoses. Thirdly, the essay links discrimination and stigma and to psychiatric diagnoses. Lastly, the essay shows how psychiatric diagnoses fit into the larger picture of the healthcare system. Mental illness is as severe as psychical health, but patients with psychological disorders suffer stigma and discrimination than physical health patients.
Psychiatric diagnoses offer patients the chance to receive special services and treatment and helps psychologists understand the illness. Mental illness is as severe as other health issues such as diabetes and blood pressure. People in society have a different mental illnesses resulting from societal interactions and behavior. A person can have signs and symptoms of a particular psychological disorder and fail to recognize them. For example, when people lose their job, they tend to have symptoms of depression, but they do not realize, at the moment. Furthermore, people have symptoms of other psychological disorders such as bipolar and schizophrenia but do not know they have a psychological disorder. Researchers urge that, out of seven people, one person has a mental illness. Therefore, people must attend to psychiatric diagnoses to identify their psychological disorders and receive effective treatment and therapies. In addition, psychologists understand psychological disorders after diagnoses. When psychologists attend to their patients, they identify and learn symptoms of particular psychological disorders that overlap with other disorders. Therefore, psychiatric diagnoses is beneficial to the psychiatrists and the patients.
Different psychiatric diagnoses from different psychiatrists can confuse the patient. Psychiatrists need to have sufficient experience and proficiency when it comes to treating patients with a psychological disorder. Sometimes, psychological disorders have overlapping symptoms, but mental illnesses are diverse from each other. In addition, different psychiatrists might have different methods in treating psychological disorders. For instance, a psychiatrist can use therapies to treat a patient while another psychiatric can combine therapies and medications for treating the same patient. Patient welfare is essential; hence, psychiatrists must follow up on their patient conditions and ensure they receive effective treatment and avoid using different approaches to prevent confusion on the patient.
Psychiatric diagnoses are long-term, and treating patients with psychological disorders may make them feel like they are in prison compared to health diagnoses. Many psychological disorders are long-term in existence, while some are short-lived, such as depression and trauma. A patient with a psychological disorder has to attend therapies and receive medication for a long time. For instance, schizophrenia, one of the severe psychological disorders makes have long-term treatment. A patient with schizoaffective disorder is usually confined to a facility for control and treatment. Many patients of schizoaffective disorder urge that during their treatment, they feel like they were in prison, and many of them try to devise ways to escape. Psychiatric patients receive minimal respect and interaction, and the dominant of receiving instruction is through command. On the contrary, some health diagnoses, such as diabetes, are long-term. Severe cases of diabetes may render patients in a confined facility for treatment, but the patients have some degree of freedom compared to patients of schizoaffective disorder. Patients with other health diagnoses receive maximum respect and diagnoses within the treatment facility.
One of the significant drawbacks of psychiatric diagnoses is the discrimination and stigmatization of the patient. Many psychological disorders are long-term and require long-term management and treatment. In addition, no one chooses to possess a psychological disorder. People who have severe psychological disorders suffer discrimination in society. For instance, people with borderline personality disorder face many difficulties at work and make them face discrimination from their peers. Further, people with psychological disorders tend to hide their condition since many people avoid relationships with such people. For severe psychological disorders such as schizoaffective, there is a lot of stigmas associated with it. People believe that patients with severe psychological disorders could result from a wrong upbringing since childhood or could have done the wrong things, thus creating blame, shame, and guilt. In addition, patients with schizoaffective disorder avoid electronic beeps, thus making it hard to interact with people. Therefore, patients with psychological disorders suffer stigma and discrimination from other people in society.
Mental health issues greatly affect the physical health of an individual, and physical health affects mental health. The mental and physical health of an individual significantly influences each other. Some psychological disorders affect the feeding patterns of an individual, thus affecting the individual’s physical health, while some long-term physical health conditions such as diabetes can lead to mental health problems such as anxiety and depression. The correlation of mental and physical health makes psychiatric diagnoses fit into the larger picture of the healthcare system.
The following loads were considered:
●One Server ¬(ProLiant ML350 Gen9), One PABX (Panasonic KX-TES824), Ten Laptops(50W Each), One Switch (D-Link DGS-1024D), Two Routers(10W Each), Three TP-Link Range Extender(7W Each), One Printer (HP LaserJet 1536dnf MFP) and Charging of 10 phones.
Below is the current setup:
•One Tripp Lite Inverter/Charger (2000W APS INT Series 12VDC 230V) connected to Four 200Ah Batteries.

To initiate and sustain logistical and strategic goals, the organization ‘s

Logistics and Supply Chain Management Concepts & Tools:
To support strategic and logistical objectives, also to follow the logistics plans and supplier chains should use both companies some tools,
• Demand Forecasting

Using analyzes, SCM processes vast quantities of supply chain data in the shortest time.

Supplier Management

When we talk about logistics management and supply chains, you need a supplier management tool that helps us understand the costs of advisories and expenses.

Transportation and logistics tools

In order to achieve a complete supply chain management solution, companies need to type of transport management. Transport and logistics tools help both companies manage the movement of inventory and materials from one location to another.

Order processing tools

Application processing is critical to any supply chain, and as such, SCM programs provide the tools to make this task easier and more efficient.
Without making things convoluted, a blockchain is essentially a system of recording information or transactions which are duplicated and distributed across an entire network of computer systems. Different types of information can be stored on a blockchain, but the most common use has been as a ledger for transactions.
Blockchain Technology can also be termed as ‘Distributed Ledger Technology’ because it allows access and validation simultaneously across a network spread across multiple entities or locations, and multiple participants can manage the database.
The Blockchain technology first came into the spotlight through bitcoin, a much popular cryptocurrency. It was set in motion back in 2009 by developer(s) working under the pseudonym Satoshi Nakamoto.
It consists of ‘blocks’ that hold batches of timestamped transactions, with each block linked to the previous one through asymmetric-key algorithms and hash functions (cryptographic algorithms), thus forming a chain. Each block in the chain contains a number of transactions, and every time a new transaction occurs on the blockchain, a record of that transaction is added to every participant’s ledger.
Here are some of the terms that you need to be familiar with when dealing with this transformative technology:
– A smart contract – According to Wikipedia, this is a computer code built into a blockchain in order to automatically execute, control or document legally relevant events and actions according to the terms of a contract or agreement.
– Hashing – This involves using a mathematical algorithm to convert a transaction that has been verified and needs to be added to a block in a chain into set of unique numbers and letters called hash codes which then become a security feature for blockchains.
– Peer-to-Peer Networks (P2P) – This is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between peers. On a decentralized system, each node in P2P networks agrees to one blockchain state, so that anyone can check a transaction independently.
In conclusion, we can understand that blockchain offers the possibility of creating a fraud-proof system for transacting exchanges. In the next article, I will be uncovering the features of Blockchain Technology. Stay tuned.

Surveillance Cameras in Public Places
Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliation
Date

Surveillance Cameras in Public Places
Introduction
The idea behind the video surveillance cameras project has been embraced in major Canadian cities and other cities worldwide. Commonplace outside private organizations, apartment buildings, streets, storefronts, underground tunnels, intersections, and parks, surveillance cameras have been widely accepted by the public as an essential technology for their personal safety. Video surveillance or Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) is one of the most common modes of surveillance. The technology uses cameras for surveillance, erected in strategic places by private or public agencies for crime prevention and prosecution. Video surveillance is a multifunctional tool initially used to manage risks associated with crime, accidents, fire, and traffic jams. However, there are conflicting opinions regarding the use of surveillance cameras in public places. Although some quotas believe that the technology should not be used, surveillance cameras can be essential for people’s lives and safety.
Carli, V. (2008). Assessing CCTV as an effective safety and management tool for crime-solving, prevention, and reduction. International Centre for the Prevention of Crime, 1-19. Retrieved from https://cipc-icpc.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/Assessing_CCTV_as_an_effective_safety_and_management_tool_ANG.pdf
In-text citation for a paraphrase of the source’s information (Carli, 2008)
In-text citation with page numbers for a direct quote from the source (Carli, 2008, pg. 4-15)
-The article gives a detailed background and origin of video surveillance.
Analysis:
-The author opines that video technology dates back to the mid-20th century with information and communication technology expansion.
-During this period, surveillance cameras were used mainly in shops, banks, and traffic management.
-The technology began expanding in cities, mainly in the United States and the United Kingdom.
-The United Kingdom is believed to be “the first country to implement video surveillance use, whereby its government installed thousands of surveillance cameras in the 1980s” (Carli, 2008, p. 6).
-1970s saw the mass adoption of surveillance cameras to monitor public places such as schools, parks, hospitals, and so on.
-Video technology began advancing at a significant rate in the 1990s.
Type of Surveillance System in the 1990s
-Digital Multiplexing was a more affordable surveillance system that revolutionized the video surveillance sector in the 1990s.
-The system has features such as “motion-only and time-lapse” that facilitate recording on numerous cameras at once, thus improving recording efficiency (p.6).
Uses of Surveillance Cameras
-Provides warning signs of “potential criminal offences and act as a reactive tool” (p.7).
-Reducing crime rates within targeted areas.
-Builds feelings of security.
-A management tool to administer and monitor “social spaces and transport systems” (p.9).
Note on Surveillance Cameras
-The author has also talked about ethical challenges surrounding the use of surveillance cameras in public places, such as mounting fears of insecurity, the suppression of individual freedoms for the “greater good,” and lack of privacy (p.11).
-The article also discusses existing regulations on the use of surveillance cameras, such as the Data Protection Act, Private Security Industry Act, among others.
-The article has several recommendations for further discussion on the effectiveness of surveillance cameras.
The article is an interesting piece because it gives surveillance cameras’ background, ethical challenges, regulations, and recommendations.
My question after reading the article is why the public is left out when it comes to the regulation and implementation of the technology? The public should be involved because this concerns their privacy and security.
Another source is listed on the reference page:
Ratcliffe, J. (2011). Video Surveillance of Public Places. Retrieved from https://cops.usdoj.gov/RIC/Publications/cops-p097-pub.pdf

Cavoukian, A. (2013). Surveillance, Then and Now: Securing Privacy in Public Spaces. Retrieved from https://www.ipc.on.ca/wp-content/uploads/Resources/pbd-surveillance.pdf
In-text citation for a paraphrase of the source’s information (Cavoukian, 2013)
In-text citation with page numbers for a direct quote from the source (Cavoukian, 2013, pg. 1-49)
-The article educates the broader public, lawmakers, and police in understanding and protecting people’s right to privacy concerning public video surveillance.
Analysis:
-The author argues that the right to privacy does not protect places but people.
-Therefore, as the Canadian government considers the implications of terrorist attacks, the public must consider that public video surveillance can increase efficiencies for law enforcement and the criminal justice system to apprehend illegal activities before they are executed.
-The author claims that there is a need to exercise a proactive approach, highlighting the right to informational privacy owed to all people.
-This way, “their right to privacy in public places can be secure due to the emergence of new technologies such as surveillance cameras” (Cavoukian, 2013, p. 1).
-The author opines that the actual value of confidentiality must be acknowledged and ideally enhanced by relevant stakeholders, not infringed, in any attempt to secure the country.
Note on Proactive Privacy
-The author also discusses the importance of proactive privacy by design approach when formulating and implanting the policy framework required for supervising state-owned surveillance cameras.
-The process will ensure that “confidentiality, transparency, and accountability are entrenched in any proposed video surveillance system” (p. 1).
-The power of the law enforcement agencies to deploy any form of invasive video surveillance technology must be inspected under a system of prior judicial authorization.
-The author insists on the importance of legal mechanisms to ensure the appropriate and accountable use of public video surveillance and other surveillance systems to guarantee public safety and the right to privacy.
My question after reading the article is whether the right to privacy is being respected in this era of new technologies? Video surveillance operators should ensure that they are honest when it comes to any collection of personal data.
Another source is listed on the reference page:
Ratcliffe, J. (2011). Video Surveillance of Public Places. Retrieved from https://cops.usdoj.gov/RIC/Publications/cops-p097-pub.pdf

Lai, D. (2007). Public video surveillance by the state: Policy, privacy legislation, and the Charter. Alberta Law Review, 45(1), 43-77. doi:10.29173/alr379
In-text citation for a paraphrase of the source’s information (Lai, 2007)
In-text citation with page numbers for a direct quote from the source (Lai, 2007, pg. 44-77)
-The article explores the growing phenomenon of video surveillance in public places and how people’s privacy should be protected by Canadian law while providing for effective law enforcement.
-It also explores the negative and positive consequences and modern technological advancements, which challenge law enforcers, legislatures, and courts.
Analysis:
-The author suggests that public video surveillance is a feature of the lives of most people worldwide.
-The public and policymakers should engage in an informed policy debate regarding the effectiveness of surveillance cameras and their impact on privacy.
-Although surveillance cameras reduce instances of crime, the author reckons that the system is “a complex phenomenon whose effectiveness can be challenging to predict” (Lai, 2007, p.77).
-The author insists that it is misleading to say that surveillance cameras will usher in a Big Brother state.
-Therefore, it is crucial to isolate public video surveillance features that infringe on privacy and uncover legal and technological means of reducing such infringements instead of eradicating the surveillance cameras.
Note on Two Case Concerning the use of Surveillance Cameras.
-The author also used two case studies from “Edmonton and Kelowna” to scrutinize the role of provincial and federal privacy legislation while examining Canadian Supreme Court interpretation of s. 8 of the Charter through an examination of jurisprudence relating to public video surveillance system (Lai, 2007, p. 43).
One question that arises is whether the analysis/collection scheme will preserve the effectiveness of public video surveillance while reducing its privacy-intrusive aspects? The author opines that the division of collection/analysis is supposed to reduce the impact on privacy. Therefore, video surveillance on innocent people will not exist because law enforcers will only access video footage based on particularized and reasonable grounds.
Another source is listed on the reference page:
Cavoukian, A. (2013). Surveillance, Then and Now: Securing Privacy in Public Spaces. Retrieved from https://www.ipc.on.ca/wp-content/uploads/Resources/pbd-surveillance.pdf

Lippert, R. (2008). Open-Street CCTV Canadian Style. Retrieved from https://www.crimeandjustice.org.uk/sites/crimeandjustice.org.uk/files/09627250708553283.pdf
In-text citation for a paraphrase of the source’s information (Lippert, 2007)
In-text citation with page numbers for a direct quote from the source (Lippert, 2007, pg. 31-32)
The article’s focus: it describes how Canada embraced the growing number of surveillance cameras in its major cities.
Analysis:
-The author claims that authorities more often use the threat of terrorism, violent incidences, and urban revitalization to justify their resolve to introduce public video surveillance.
-Open-street surveillance cameras can be seen slowly emerging in urban areas across the country in collaboration with “federal and provincial governments as well as municipal government and local police” (Lippert, 2007).
-Most often, surveillance cameras are installed in streets to target anti-social and criminal conduct.
-In some instances, law enforcers are using public video surveillance images to pursue criminal prosecutions.
– The regulation and evaluation of public video surveillance are all embryonic in Canada.
Note on Sections of the Law
-The author claims that sections in Canadian law like Section 4 place responsibility squarely on authorities to demonstrate that “less invasive modes of policing are not viable so that they can justify each surveillance camera through verifiable crime incident reports” (Lippert, 2007, 31).
-Section 6 requires the stakeholders to distribute pamphlets or post signs at the perimeter of the cameras’ gaze, showing members of the public why their data is being collected.
-Section 7 requires the secure storage of gathered video surveillance images from forty-eight to seventy-two hours before deleting them unless retrieved for law enforcement use.
-After reading the article, one question that came up is why there are no signs at the parameter of cameras gaze indicating to the public why their personal information is being collected? Yet Section 6 requires this information to be made available.
Another source is listed on the reference page:
Lai, D. (2007). Public video surveillance by the state: Policy, privacy legislation, and the Charter. Alberta Law Review, 45(1), 43-77. doi:10.29173/alr379

Privacy Act, RSC 1985, c P-21. (2021, August 12). Retrieved from
https://www.canlii.org/en/ca/laws/stat/rsc-1985-c-p-21/latest/rsc-1985-c-p-21.html
In-text citation for a paraphrase of the source’s information (Privacy Act, 2021)
In-text citation with page numbers for a direct quote from the source (Privacy Act, 2021, para
1-4)
-Focus of the article: it talks about how Canadian laws are designed to protect its citizens’
Privacy and provide them with a right to access their personal information.
Analysis:
-Every Canadian citizen or permanent resident has a right to access personal data contained in a personal information bank.
The act gives government institutions the power to directly obtain personal information intended for administrative purposes.
-The act also states that “A government institution shall collect no personal information unless it relates directly to an operating system program activity of the institution” (“Privacy Act,” 2021, para. 4).
-The government institution is required to retain personal information it has previously used for a given period to ensure that the owner of the data has a reasonable opportunity to have easy access to the information.
-The act also compels the government not to use personal information without the owner’s consent or for the purpose for which it was obtained.
-The government cannot disclose personal information without permission from the person it relates to.
Note on the Purpose of the Act
-Its purpose is to “extend the current Canadian laws, which protect individual’s privacy with regard to personal information concerning them held by a government institution and which provide individuals with a right to access their data” (Privacy Act, 2021, para. 2).
My question after reading the article is whether these laws are upheld by relevant authorities?
Every Canadian expects these laws to keep pace with social and technological change.
-Each and every person is affected by the Privacy Act and how their personal data is handled.
Another source listed in the reference page:
Lai, D. (2007). Public video surveillance by the state: Policy, privacy legislation, and the Charter. Alberta Law Review, 45(1), 43-77. doi:10.29173/alr379

Ratcliffe, J. (2011). Video Surveillance of Public Places. Retrieved from https://cops.usdoj.gov/RIC/Publications/cops-p097-pub.pdf
In-text citation for a paraphrase of the source’s information (Ratcliffe, 2011)
In-text citation with page numbers for a direct quote from the source (Ratcliffe, 2011, pg. 7-35)
-Focus of the article: it provides an overview of the use of surveillance cameras to respond to crime.
Analysis:
-The general public is now accustomed to being monitored by surveillance cameras in several public places.
-Although some people see video surveillance as a mechanism to intrude and invade their privacy, Ratcliffe expounds on the effectiveness of video surveillance as well as addressing some privacy and constitutional concerns.
-According to the author, video surveillance is not a physical barrier. This means that the system does not limit access to “certain places, make it difficult for a person to be robbed or assaulted, or make something harder to steal” (Ratcliffe, 2011, p. 13).
-However, the video technology seeks to change the perception of the criminal so that the criminal believes that they risk being caught if they commit a crime.
Uses
-Has the potential to reduce the crime rate.
-Assist law enforcers in responding promptly to any suspicious incidents captured by the cameras enabling the criminal justice system to pursue the criminal’s conviction.
-Surveillance cameras operators can contact medical services if they notice a member of the public needs medical assistance.
Note on Evaluation of Surveillance Cameras
-The author opines that numerous studies have examined the perception of the public and video surveillance system managers in regard to the technology’s crime prevention benefits.
-The author says “These perceptions are usually positive, but evidence of actual crime reduction is harder to find” (p. 21).
-It is often challenging to establish whether video surveillance reduces crime because a problem-oriented policing solution is seldom executed without other crime prevention strategies being applied simultaneously.
My question after reading the article is why do manufacturers claim unqualified success for the systems while in the real sense they fail to captures everything? As noted from Ratcliffe’s research, video surveillance systems like open-street CCTV can only perform in limited ways – meaning that the system performs in different ways in different situations.
Another source listed in the reference page:
Carli, V. (2008). Assessing CCTV as an effective safety and management tool for crime-solving, prevention, and reduction. International Centre for the Prevention of Crime, 1-19. Retrieved from https://cipc-icpc.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/Assessing_CCTV_as_an_effective_safety_and_management_tool_ANG.pdf
Conclusion
To sum up, most governments use surveillance cameras as primary tools to monitor people’s movements and prevent terrorism and crime. Hundreds of public surveillance cameras are installed on streets, parks, hospitals, schools, and other public places to make the country safe. In addition to security and safety, the population also needs freedom and privacy. The government must secure people’s right to privacy when installing surveillance cameras. This technology can be effective without being penetrative or intrusive when technical controls and legal administrative are considered.

Bibliography
Carli, V. (2008). Assessing CCTV as an effective safety and management tool for crime-solving, prevention, and reduction. International Centre for the Prevention of Crime, 1-19. Retrieved from https://cipc-icpc.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/Assessing_CCTV_as_an_effective_safety_and_management_tool_ANG.pdf
Cavoukian, A. (2013). Surveillance, Then and Now: Securing Privacy in Public Spaces. Retrieved from https://www.ipc.on.ca/wp-content/uploads/Resources/pbd-surveillance.pdf
Lai, D. (2007). Public video surveillance by the state: Policy, privacy legislation, and the Charter. Alberta Law Review, 45(1), 43-77. doi:10.29173/alr379
Lippert, R. (2008). Open-Street CCTV Canadian Style. Retrieved from https://www.crimeandjustice.org.uk/sites/crimeandjustice.org.uk/files/09627250708553283.pdf
Privacy Act, RSC 1985, c P-21. (2021, August 12). Retrieved from https://www.canlii.org/en/ca/laws/stat/rsc-1985-c-p-21/latest/rsc-1985-c-p-21.html
Ratcliffe, J. (2011). Video Surveillance of Public Places. Retrieved from https://cops.usdoj.gov/RIC/Publications/cops-p097-pub.pdf

END OF GOUT OVERVIEW
Do your joints feel stiff all the time? Or do your limbs suffer from intense unexplainable pain that is never-ending? There are high chances you’re suffering from gout. Gout is an incapacitating kind of arthritis that’s suffered by plenty of people across the globe. This disease is frequently associated with diet and other variables, including age and body weight, characterized by agonizing pain. Besides, it’s not that effortless to deal with if you don’t have a reliable way to overcome it.
What is End of Gout about?
This is an eBook that offers you all the information you need to fight gout, including its cause, diagnosis, symptoms, and treatment. Plus, it provides you with details of health enhancement once you’re okay.
The End of Gout is an all-inclusive guide published by Blue Heron Health News and has been through various tests and a lot of research before being published. Moreover, it explains to the reader how the leading cause of gout is not because your body has excess uric acid. Truth be told, gout is caused by the ineffective removal of uric acid by the body.
The immobility and pain are well-explained, from what causes it to how to treat it. and you get all this information from the comfort of your home.
Furthermore, this eBook is easy to read, and implement, and fortunately you don’t need to have a degree in science to understand the strategies and tips written.
How does it work and what benefits do you get?
The End of Gout program gives you exceptional information to get rid of excess uric acid in your body and hinder the formation of uric acid crystals in the joints.
Here you’ll find out the ways through which you can boost your immune system to hinder the gout from causing too much pain. Again, it offers you an opportunity to boost the good gut bacterial and shield you against this condition.
Additionally, End of Gout gives a list of ingredients that you can incorporate in your daily diet to have healthy, good gut bacterial to boost your bodily functions to begin living heathy and avoid having gout as well as other health conditions.
What’s more, in this diet changes and information, lies the opportunity to deal with conditions like irritable bowel movement, type II diabetes, heart condition, obesity, kidney disease, etc.
Besides, this, here are some benefits of following the End of Gout program;
• It’ll put an end to your gout
• You won’t need to use painkillers and other medication for gout
• You’ll never have to wake up in the middle of the night due to gout attacks
• You’ll be leading a healthier lifestyle
• Your kidney and gut health will improve significantly
• The healthy lifestyle translates to losing weight
• Most inflammation-linked conditions will vanish within no time
• Your body will be able to digest food better
What’s inside the package?
When you buy this eBook, there are no additional products, just the eBook.
About the author
Shelly Manning is the author of this fine book. She is a health practitioner and it took her almost 30 years of research in Europe and USA, to develop this program.
Moreover, the End of Gout program was once again tested on various people with gout, who found them helpful.
Shelly Manning has a swell developed various programs by integrating Blue Heron health. Plus, all her programs are natural and they don’t feature supplements or chemicals.
Pros & cons
Pros
• This program is easy to read, understand and follow
• The remedies included in the program are entirely natural
• This eBook features everything you need to eliminate gout naturally and completely
• The End of Gout book features the most suitable methods and effective approaches to deal with gout
• It deals with gout from the source
Cons
• You have to follow it consistently for best results
• Individual results may be different depending on gout and the body’s condition.
Summary
its about time you take your health seriously, and make healthy changes. You’ve gone through the agonizing pain of gout disease and have taken more than enough medication, and it never seems to end.
You can’t live like this. The End of Gout eBook is the solution to all your gout problems. You should definitely try it out. Besides, it is a natural and effortless remedy to follow. Most people have reported significant improvement in their gouts within the first 14 days of use, and their condition had vanished by the second month.

According to the Brennan Center, the main method used today to suppress the voters is “Erecting new barriers to the Ballot box” (Johnson, 2020). Many states in the country have passed various laws that directly restrict people on their right to vote. The restrictions comes in various ways such as the prerequisite of having an ID. Today voters must present a Government-issued ID to be able to vote. This specific law has been proven to be a burden because study has revealed that although people think that most Americans have IDs, the reality is millions of Americans do not possess IDs, especially Black people. This is evident when the district court of North Dakota discovered that 19 % of Native Americans lacked IDs, compared to 12% of other voters (Johnson, 202). The requirement of possessing IDs as a condition to vote varies from one state to another, some sates allows handgun licenses to vote but not allowing student’s ID. Another method of suppression is the need for matching names on registration records and on approved forms of identification (Levit, 2007). These restrictions have locked out a lot of Americans from voting, especially people of color. Many people upon reaching the ballot box, find their names either wrongly matched. This restricts them from voting. The early voting also has been significantly contributing to voter’s suppression; besides millions of people are restricted from voting because of a criminal conviction (Wendy et al., 2021). Although the laws on offender’s right to vote differ from one state to the other, a significant amount of citizens are suppressed on their voting rights because of criminal conviction.
The causes for voter’s suppression as discussed in class are restriction placed on voter’s registration. There are tough terms and conditions placed upon registering as a voter, they can include; documents to prove citizenship, limited time of registering and also voter’s fraud. Voter’s fraud occurs during the whole process of election, from pending voters, where voters are listed to not have voted for the last years and cannot be found, to political parties closing polling stations. Although voter’s fraud is paramount, it is hardly reported by the media, or when it is, the reporting is of biases and not disclosing the whole truth (Erickson, 2020). With lack of information, voter suppression surges. Another cause for voter’s suppression is the highly discouragement of voter’s participation due to harsh treatments like denying voters access to food and water. For example in Georgia, there is a law that forbids giving voters standing on the long lines food and water(“ACLU news & commentary,” 2021 ).Voters purge also causes suppression, as the cleaning process of voters might caught people unaware that they aren’t eligible to vote when they surprisingly find their names deleted on the rolls.
In my opinion, voter’s suppression is a great threat to democracy. Democracy entails running a government where the system is inclusive of all, with members of the government being elected by the people. There is no democracy if citizens of a country are denied or overpowered to their civil rights. I think voter’s suppression directly affects this civil rights, which constitutes democracy. Suppression promotes discrimination at a heightened level, especially with all the restriction of voting affecting the majority of people of color. All across different states, lawmakers are constantly making it harder for African Americans and other minorities to vote; from restrictive requirements such as Government ID, voter’s purges to the marginalization of people with criminal background. If Voter’s suppression is not capped, it will continue to pose as a great threat to democracy, which eventually will eliminate a democratic system of government.

Cyber Security Question

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Cyber Security Question
Introduction
Cyber security certificates are one-year programs that concentrate on practical cyber security familiarity and capabilities. They are different from professional certifications in that they are academic qualifications offered by various universities and even colleges. Cyber security certificate programs are grouped into two major classifications. The first classification is the undergraduate certificates, which is intended to get one up to the pace regarding core cyber security problems and capabilities. On the other hand, graduate certificates are extra wide-ranging. Also, they are designed for experts who have already acquired an undergraduate degree and want to progress their knowledge, expand their occupation prospects, or take a first step in the direction of a master’s degree.
Comparison between Cyber Security Certificates in various Schools
The coursework needed to finish an academic cybersecurity undergraduate degree differs broadly with different schools. However, generally, a good number of academic certification plans need approximately fifteen credit hours. That is equivalent to a single semester that has full-time study. The main thing that one should always know is that those cyber security certifications plans are typically intended to assist students with an appropriate background in obtaining particular training and proficiency in cyber security subjects. Most essentially, these certifications’ main goal is to seal the gap between prior experiences and what is required in the cyber security labor force. Below are excellent examples of cyber security certification plans offered by various schools, including what Fairfield University offers to its students.
For instance, for a student to finish a graduate cyber security certificate at the University of Rhode Island, they are required to finish four courses. Courses offered in the school are classified into three-course classifications. The first classification is the beginning core courses, which is supposed to be taken before a student can accomplish any extra courses. Also, these courses can only be taken together with the Introduction to Information Assurance course. The second classification is the mandatory core courses, which must only be taken when one is almost ending the certificate program. They include Introduction to Information Assurance and Advanced Topics in Network and System Security. The last classification is the concentration courses, whereby a student is required to take one extra course from this classification to finish their certificate program. Courses in the last classification include Digital Forensics I, Advanced Incident Response, Advanced Intrusion Detection and Defense, Penetration Testing, and Cyber Threat Intelligence.
The other school is the Sacred Heart University that offers a cyber security minor program. The program starts with exploration courses and a well-built computer science base that includes programming and data structures. After that, the students are taught about computer networks, cyber security standards, tactics, and laws. The minor program ends with a particularized course regarding network security. The other school is Fairfield University, whereby for a student to obtain a certificate in cyber security, they need to take at least four courses. The course offered includes cloud computing and an introduction to information safety, network security, applications, and data security. Ethical hacking is also included in the course.
The University of New Haven is different from the other two universities in that it offers a variety of graduate investigation certificates, which is an additional advantage. Digital forensics appears to be common in numerous schools. However, New Haven University concentrates on its investigation in addition to a number of other investigations, which can be beneficial in cyber security. For instance, offering certificate programs like financial crime, healthcare fraud, and people trafficking investigations can benefit cyber security since the courses offered are crucial.
However, all the above cyber security certificate programs are intended to introduce students to networking, danger and threat control, structural security design, ethical and security capabilities to tackle the constantly transforming security threats efficiently. The programs introduce students to ways of establishing a safe and peril management technology surrounding, provide a general idea of appropriate technology peril management routines, and introduce students to a range of social and moral present problems over those in giving security to risk management and technology. Also, these programs assist students in being able to recognize new and existing dangers and come up with techniques to alleviate them. Additionally, provide students the capabilities to deal with security occurrences.
Recommendations
One recommendation is that the undergraduate certificate is that it should include the human factors in cyber security course, which highly recognizes that cyberspace is an enormous, complicated, and continuously changing society that presents enterprises, governments, and industries with unending security management difficulties, as it advances on an aggressive scale. The course would assist students in gaining a cyber security comprehension via investigating threats, susceptibilities, and risk effects, the spread of doubt and fear, controlling human factors in security, information assurance, and reliance management. Core units should include cyber security, which would help one develop cyber security capabilities and knowledge. Human factors and research techniques, and proficiency should also be core units in this course. The last core unit should be individual projects, which would present one a chance to scrutinize and make a report regarding particular issues in-depth significantly.
The other recommendation is an introduction of a new course named introduction to cyberbullying and cyberstalking. The two are significant issues in the current society, and numerous individuals have fallen victims. Additionally, not so many people know how to go about it, and some individuals even end up committing suicide. The course would give students an excellent comprehension of strategies that would help tackle online bullying. The course could be short and involve course introduction, team building routines, case scenarios, and bullying prevention strategies.
The other recommendation is that extra courses should be added as required courses under the criminal investigation certification. The extra courses should include an introduction to criminal justice and investigations. The criminal justice’s introduction involves history and present criminal justice system’s practice, the duties of courts, correctional organizations, and law enforcement bodies. On the other hand, the criminal investigations’ introduction involves studies on basic criminal investigation standards, including the evaluation of investigative methods, action courses, criminal patterns, interrogation approaches, etc. Documenting a crime scene is the other course that should be added. It should involve learning practical strategies used to identify evidence, documenting evidence’s location, sketching of crime scenes, and collecting and handling crime scenes’ evidence until it is presented in court. Lastly, an investigation’s law course should also be added. It should involve a thorough exploration of the United States’ constitutional law that governs criminal investigative processes.
The last recommendation is that a financial crime psychology course should be included in the financial crime investigation certificate. The course would be essential since it would introduce students to essential psychology and decision-making hypothesis perceptions. That would include modern developments like heightening the essentiality of comprehending human decision-making’s emotional facets and how it can drive people to get involved in unlawful activities.

References

Summary of an Audit Issue Research

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Summary of an Audit Issue Research

The research study reviewed in this summary is” The Impact of Audit Committee and External Auditor Characteristics on financial Reporting Quality among Malaysian Firms” by Aram Jawar and Dler Ahmed. The audit article mainly looks into how the audit committee and the external auditors determine the quality of a financial report. The authors further argue that in the capital markets, the financial reports mainly determine a market’s valuation, and thus audit is a vital component. The research is based on Malaysian top 100 performing firms according to the Bursa stock exchange market in 2014.
The article mainly looks into the audit issues but, more specifically, the impact that the audit committee and the external auditors have on the quality of the financial reports. The article states that financial reports play a critical role in ensuring proper wealth transfer and valuation of financial instruments and companies. Poor reporting results in inefficient wealth transfer and losses while trading in the financial markets(Jawhar et al.& Ahmed et al., 2017). Thus, the audit committee and external auditors are the primary players in financial reporting. Audit issues are common in businesses, including those that do not have an audit committee. We can see the quality of financial reports we will achieve by looking at the characteristics of the audit committee and the external auditors.
The expected or predicted outcome of this research study is that if there is an efficient audit committee and external auditors, the financial reports will be of high quality. Poor financial reports are the result of an ineffective corporate board. An external auditor’s primary responsibility is to review a company’s financial information and report on the findings(Jawhar et al.& Ahmed et al., 2017). Another responsibility is to investigate financial reports for errors and fraud and perform audit operations and make recommendations. The audit committee oversees the audit process’s financial reporting process and collaborates with the external auditors during the auditing process. As a result, the quality of financial reports is determined by these key players. As a result, the rationale is based on the roles assigned to the audit committee and the external auditors.
The correlation method is primarily used in the research study. It is clear because the study seeks to determine the relationship between audit committee characteristics such as independence, expertise, and diligence, and external auditor characteristics such as large audit firms, industry leaders, and financial reporting quality of Malaysia’s top 100 listed companies in 2014(Jawhar et al.& Ahmed et al., 2017). The audit committee characteristics and the external auditors’ characteristics are independent variables, while the financial reporting quality is the dependent variable. They employed a regression model as well as a descriptive analysis of the variables in the study.
The examination of the top 100 Malaysian companies from the Bursa Malaysia revealed estimation results that all included explanatory variables, except for external auditor large firm, have a substantial influence on financial reporting quality. This demonstrates that large audit firms’ external auditors have almost no impact on the quality of financial reports.Though previous articles focused on the audit committee’s characteristics and their impact on the quality of financial reports, this study goes a step further and examines the external auditors’ characteristics and their impact on the quality of financial reports.
Other research studies have found that the big four audit firms have a significant relationship with financial reporting quality. This is in contrast to current research, which indicates that extensive audits have little impact on financial reporting quality. Except for the findings of the large audit firms, all of the findings are supported by previous research.
The study had many limitations, which must be analyzed to give more conclusive outcomes. To reduce estimation errors, the sample size must be increased in order to accurately estimate the population mean. As a result, in the study, they tested the effect of some factors on financial reporting quality; therefore, additional factors that influence financial reporting quality in the Malaysian context should be considered in future studies to provide more insight and efficacy.
Only if the research has never been conducted in that country should a similar methodology be used. To reduce errors, the sample size in future studies should be increased if more annual reports are available(Jawhar et al.& Ahmed et al., 2017). Another limitation is the study’s low comparison consideration . In this concept, different models of measuring and estimating the influence on financial reporting quality are used, or models from other studies are combined, allowing comparison of the current results.
The final limitation is that the study did not take into account the relationship between the size of the audit committee and the tenure of the external auditor on the audit committee in relation to financial reporting quality. The size of the audit committee provides insight into the organization and work load. The external auditors audit committee tenure outlines the conditions and rules that auditors are expected to follow, as well as the disciplinary measures that will be imposed if they do not. The results are more in-depth and conclusive as a result of considering this in the study.
The study provides in-depth research on the Malaysia report concerning the quality of financial reports and the factors that influence them.(Jawhar et al.& Ahmed et al., 2017) The information can be used by investors and the general public to value the various firms they wish to trade on the Bursa Malaysia stock exchange market. The study is critical in examining and improving the external auditors’ and audit committee’s performance in order to provide quality financial reporting.
In conclusion, because audit issues affect many parts of the economic system, research on this topic has a significant impact on the financial market. The study provides an overview of the relationship between external auditors, audit committees, and financial report quality. The study includes correlational studies to determine the relationship between them, as well as additional insight into the importance of quality financial reports, as demonstrated in the review.While specifying the variables, the study looks into previous research on audit issues. Understanding the impact of external auditors and the audit committee on ensuring transparency and quality financial reports is important because financial reports play a significant role in the capital markets.

References
Jawhar, A., & Ahmed, D. (2017). (PDF) The impact of audit committee and external auditor … Retrieved October 11, 2021, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/326521944_The_Impact_of_Audit_Committee_and_External_Auditor_Characteristics_on_Financial_Reporting_Quality_among_Malaysian_Firms.

Without making things convoluted, a blockchain is essentially a system of recording information or transactions which are duplicated and distributed across an entire network of computer systems. Different types of information can be stored on a blockchain, but the most common use has been as a ledger for transactions.
Blockchain Technology can also be termed as ‘Distributed Ledger Technology’ because it allows access and validation simultaneously across a network spread across multiple entities or locations, and the database can be managed by multiple participants.
The Blockchain technology first came into the spotlight through bitcoin, a much popular cryptocurrency. It was set in motion back in 2009 by developer(s) working under the pseudonym Satoshi Nakamoto.
It consists of ‘blocks’ that hold batches of timestamped transactions, with each block linked to the previous one through asymmetric-key algorithms and hash functions (cryptographic algorithms), thus forming a chain. Each block in the chain contains a number of transactions, and every time a new transaction occurs on the blockchain, a record of that transaction is added to every participant’s ledger.
Here are some of the terms that you need to be familiar with when dealing with this transformative technology:
– A smart contract – According to Wikipedia, this is a computer code built into a blockchain in order to automatically execute, control or document legally relevant events and actions according to the terms of a contract or agreement.
– Hashing – This involves using a mathematical algorithm to convert a transaction that has been verified and needs to be added to a block in a chain into set of unique numbers and letters called hash codes which then become a security feature for blockchains.
– Peer-to-Peer Networks (P2P) – This is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between peers. On a decentralized system, each node in P2P networks agrees to one blockchain state, so that anyone can check a transaction independently.
In conclusion, we can understand that blockchain offers the possibility of creating a fraud-proof system for transacting exchanges. In the next article, I will be uncovering the features of Blockchain Technology. Stay tuned.

Favorite Restaurant

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Favorite Restaurant
One of my favorite pastimes is visiting new places and meeting new people. I like sampling new restaurants and discovering unique places to wine and dine. My favorite restaurant is the Giraffe Manor in Kenya. It is by far the most unique restaurant I have ever been to. The thing that makes it unique is that you can dine with actual resident Rothschild giraffes. This may sound strange and a little unorthodox, but it is truly a magical experience. I am usually very picky about the places I eat, depending on various reasons. However, the Giraffe Manor met all my criteria of an excellent restaurant.
The atmosphere at the Giraffe Manor is quite tranquil. Most of the people who go there are tourists who are looking to experience nature closely. They spend time there petting the giraffes and sharing their meals with them. The restaurant has a 19th-century design that is very attractive. The windows of the restaurant are built big and tall. The dining sets are arranged to hug the walls of the restaurants so that the giraffes can poke their heads in. The big windows also serve to allow lots of light to enter the restaurant. This creates the illusion of being outside. Looking out through these windows is like looking at the most lifelike painting in the world.
The service at the Giraffe manor is extraordinary. It has some of the most professional and decent staff that I have ever seen. The waiters are very polite, responsive, and attentive to the need of the visitors. I also liked the way the waiting staff is dressed. Apart from the service, the food there is fantastic. There are all kinds of exotic meals and cuisine. If you like, there are also many kinds of traditional African dishes you can enjoy. People like to eat breakfast and dinner because the giraffes usually come in the mornings and evenings before retreating to their forested sanctuary. This makes it an ideal place to spend the night or weekend.
The giraffe manor sits on a twelve-acre piece of private property. Apart from the restaurant, it also has so many other services to tourists and other clientele. One can stroll around the leafy surroundings and enjoy the tranquil environment. There are some historical artifacts on display, a gallery containing various types of art, and a fully functional spa for relaxation needs. There is also an outdoor setting where afternoon tea is served, right around the time the giraffes start coming back.
The restaurant offers many convenient services, which many other restaurants don’t. First, it offers free parking services to all visitors. Second, it offers round-the-clock security for all revelers. This allows you to enjoy your stay without having to worry about your safety. It also has free Wi-Fi services for all visitors. This allows them to maintain communication and share their beautiful experiences with others. The Giraffe Manor is a children-friendly facility. It has several fun activities for children. It is also accommodating of the many needs that children have when visiting.
It is advisable to make reservations at the Giraffe Manor because the reservations are limited. This is due to the high demand by tourists and local visitors. There may be waiting periods of up to six days to get booked. For people traveling from outside Kenya, it is possible to reserve a place at the restaurant at the airport. There are shuttle services to and from the Giraffe Manor for convenience. There are several tailor-made packages for revelers depending on their needs and nature of visit.
In conclusion, the Giraffe Manor is an ideal place to enjoy quality time. I would strongly recommend it to anyone. I had one of the best recreational and dining experiences there. It is the most unique restaurant because it offers the normal dining facilities of ordinary restaurants, but also provides a rare contact with nature in close proximity.

Surveillance Cameras in Public Places
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Surveillance Cameras in Public Places
Introduction
The idea behind the video surveillance cameras project has been embraced in major Canadian cities and other cities worldwide. Commonplace outside private organizations, apartment buildings, streets, storefronts, underground tunnels, intersections, and parks, surveillance cameras have been widely accepted by the public as an essential technology for their personal safety. Video surveillance or Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) is one of the most common modes of surveillance. The technology uses cameras for surveillance, erected in strategic places by private or public agencies for crime prevention and prosecution. Video surveillance is a multifunctional tool initially used to manage risks associated with crime, accidents, fire, and traffic jams. However, there are conflicting opinions regarding the use of surveillance cameras in public places. Although some quotas believe that the technology should not be used, surveillance cameras can be essential for people’s lives and safety.
Carli, V. (2008). Assessing CCTV as an effective safety and management tool for crime-solving, prevention, and reduction. International Centre for the Prevention of Crime, 1-19. Retrieved from https://cipc-icpc.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/Assessing_CCTV_as_an_effective_safety_and_management_tool_ANG.pdf
In-text citation for a paraphrase of the source’s information (Carli, 2008)
In-text citation with page numbers for a direct quote from the source (Carli, 2008, pg. 4-15)
-The article gives a detailed background and origin of video surveillance.
Analysis:
-The author opines that video technology dates back to the mid-20th century with information and communication technology expansion.
-During this period, surveillance cameras were used mainly in shops, banks, and traffic management.
-The technology began expanding in cities, mainly in the United States and the United Kingdom.
-The United Kingdom is believed to be “the first country to implement video surveillance use, whereby its government installed thousands of surveillance cameras in the 1980s” (Carli, 2008, p. 6).
-1970s saw the mass adoption of surveillance cameras to monitor public places such as schools, parks, hospitals, and so on.
-Video technology began advancing at a significant rate in the 1990s.
Type of Surveillance System in the 1990s
-Digital Multiplexing was a more affordable surveillance system that revolutionized the video surveillance sector in the 1990s.
-The system has features such as “motion-only and time-lapse” that facilitate recording on numerous cameras at once, thus improving recording efficiency (p.6).
Uses of Surveillance Cameras
-Provides warning signs of “potential criminal offences and act as a reactive tool” (p.7).
-Reducing crime rates within targeted areas.
-Builds feelings of security.
-A management tool to administer and monitor “social spaces and transport systems” (p.9).
Note on Surveillance Cameras
-The author has also talked about ethical challenges surrounding the use of surveillance cameras in public places, such as mounting fears of insecurity, the suppression of individual freedoms for the “greater good,” and lack of privacy (p.11).
-The article also discusses existing regulations on the use of surveillance cameras, such as the Data Protection Act, Private Security Industry Act, among others.
-The article has several recommendations for further discussion on the effectiveness of surveillance cameras.
The article is an interesting piece because it gives surveillance cameras’ background, ethical challenges, regulations, and recommendations.
My question after reading the article is why the public is left out when it comes to the regulation and implementation of the technology? The public should be involved because this concerns their privacy and security.
Another source is listed on the reference page:
Ratcliffe, J. (2011). Video Surveillance of Public Places. Retrieved from https://cops.usdoj.gov/RIC/Publications/cops-p097-pub.pdf

Cavoukian, A. (2013). Surveillance, Then and Now: Securing Privacy in Public Spaces. Retrieved from https://www.ipc.on.ca/wp-content/uploads/Resources/pbd-surveillance.pdf
In-text citation for a paraphrase of the source’s information (Cavoukian, 2013)
In-text citation with page numbers for a direct quote from the source (Cavoukian, 2013, pg. 1-49)
-The article educates the broader public, lawmakers, and police in understanding and protecting people’s right to privacy concerning public video surveillance.
Analysis:
-The author argues that the right to privacy does not protect places but people.
-Therefore, as the Canadian government considers the implications of terrorist attacks, the public must consider that public video surveillance can increase efficiencies for law enforcement and the criminal justice system to apprehend illegal activities before they are executed.
-The author claims that there is a need to exercise a proactive approach, highlighting the right to informational privacy owed to all people.
-This way, “their right to privacy in public places can be secure due to the emergence of new technologies such as surveillance cameras” (Cavoukian, 2013, p. 1).
-The author opines that the actual value of confidentiality must be acknowledged and ideally enhanced by relevant stakeholders, not infringed, in any attempt to secure the country.
Note on Proactive Privacy
-The author also discusses the importance of proactive privacy by design approach when formulating and implanting the policy framework required for supervising state-owned surveillance cameras.
-The process will ensure that “confidentiality, transparency, and accountability are entrenched in any proposed video surveillance system” (p. 1).
-The power of the law enforcement agencies to deploy any form of invasive video surveillance technology must be inspected under a system of prior judicial authorization.
-The author insists on the importance of legal mechanisms to ensure the appropriate and accountable use of public video surveillance and other surveillance systems to guarantee public safety and the right to privacy.
My question after reading the article is whether the right to privacy is being respected in this era of new technologies? Video surveillance operators should ensure that they are honest when it comes to any collection of personal data.
Another source is listed on the reference page:
Ratcliffe, J. (2011). Video Surveillance of Public Places. Retrieved from https://cops.usdoj.gov/RIC/Publications/cops-p097-pub.pdf

Lai, D. (2007). Public video surveillance by the state: Policy, privacy legislation, and the Charter. Alberta Law Review, 45(1), 43-77. doi:10.29173/alr379
In-text citation for a paraphrase of the source’s information (Lai, 2007)
In-text citation with page numbers for a direct quote from the source (Lai, 2007, pg. 44-77)
-The article explores the growing phenomenon of video surveillance in public places and how people’s privacy should be protected by Canadian law while providing for effective law enforcement.
-It also explores the negative and positive consequences and modern technological advancements, which challenge law enforcers, legislatures, and courts.
Analysis:
-The author suggests that public video surveillance is a feature of the lives of most people worldwide.
-The public and policymakers should engage in an informed policy debate regarding the effectiveness of surveillance cameras and their impact on privacy.
-Although surveillance cameras reduce instances of crime, the author reckons that the system is “a complex phenomenon whose effectiveness can be challenging to predict” (Lai, 2007, p.77).
-The author insists that it is misleading to say that surveillance cameras will usher in a Big Brother state.
-Therefore, it is crucial to isolate public video surveillance features that infringe on privacy and uncover legal and technological means of reducing such infringements instead of eradicating the surveillance cameras.
Note on Two Case Concerning the use of Surveillance Cameras.
-The author also used two case studies from “Edmonton and Kelowna” to scrutinize the role of provincial and federal privacy legislation while examining Canadian Supreme Court interpretation of s. 8 of the Charter through an examination of jurisprudence relating to public video surveillance system (Lai, 2007, p. 43).
One question that arises is whether the analysis/collection scheme will preserve the effectiveness of public video surveillance while reducing its privacy-intrusive aspects? The author opines that the division of collection/analysis is supposed to reduce the impact on privacy. Therefore, video surveillance on innocent people will not exist because law enforcers will only access video footage based on particularized and reasonable grounds.
Another source is listed on the reference page:
Cavoukian, A. (2013). Surveillance, Then and Now: Securing Privacy in Public Spaces. Retrieved from https://www.ipc.on.ca/wp-content/uploads/Resources/pbd-surveillance.pdf

Lippert, R. (2008). Open-Street CCTV Canadian Style. Retrieved from https://www.crimeandjustice.org.uk/sites/crimeandjustice.org.uk/files/09627250708553283.pdf
In-text citation for a paraphrase of the source’s information (Lippert, 2007)
In-text citation with page numbers for a direct quote from the source (Lippert, 2007, pg. 31-32)
The focus of the article: it describes how Canada embraced the growing number of surveillance cameras in its major cities.
Analysis:
-The author claims that authorities more often use the threat of terrorism, violent incidences, and urban revitalization to justify their resolve to introduce public video surveillance.
-Open-street surveillance cameras can be seen slowly emerging in urban areas across the country in collaboration with “federal and provincial governments as well as municipal government and local police” (Lippert, 2007).
-Most often, surveillance cameras are installed in streets to target anti-social and criminal conduct.
-In some instances, law enforcers are using public video surveillance images to pursue criminal prosecutions.
– The regulation and evaluation of public video surveillance are all embryonic in Canada.
Note on Sections of the Law
-The author claims that sections in Canadian law like Section 4 place responsibility squarely on authorities to demonstrate that “less invasive modes of policing are not viable so that they can justify each surveillance camera through verifiable crime incident reports” (Lippert, 2007, 31).
-Section 6 requires the stakeholders to distribute pamphlets or post signs at the perimeter of the cameras’ gaze, showing members of the public why their data is being collected.
-Section 7 requires secure storage of gathered video surveillance images from forty-eight to seventy-two hours before deleting them unless retrieved for law enforcement use.
-After reading the article, one question that came up is why there are no signs at the parameter of cameras gaze indicating to the public why their personal information is being collected? Yet Section 6 requires this information to be made available.
Another source listed in the reference page:
Lai, D. (2007). Public video surveillance by the state: Policy, privacy legislation, and the Charter. Alberta Law Review, 45(1), 43-77. doi:10.29173/alr379

Privacy Act, RSC 1985, c P-21. (2021, August 12). Retrieved from
https://www.canlii.org/en/ca/laws/stat/rsc-1985-c-p-21/latest/rsc-1985-c-p-21.html
In-text citation for a paraphrase of the source’s information (Privacy Act, 2021)
In-text citation with page numbers for a direct quote from the source (Privacy Act, 2021, para
1-4)
-Focus of the article: it talks about how Canadian laws are designed to protect its citizens’
Privacy and provide them with a right to access their personal information.
Analysis:
-Every Canadian citizen or permanent resident has a right to access personal data contained in a personal information bank.
-The act gives government institutions power to directly obtain personal information, which is intended for administrative purposes.
-The act also states that “A government institution shall collect no personal information unless it relates directly to an operating system program activity of the institution” (“Privacy Act,” 2021, para. 4).
-The government institution is required to retain personal information it has previously used for a given period to ensure that the owner of the data has a reasonable opportunity to have easy access to the information.
-The act also compels the government not to use personal information without the owner’s consent or for the purpose for which it was obtained.
-The government cannot disclose personal information without permission from the person it relates to.
Note on the Purpose of the Act
-Its purpose is to “extend the current Canadian laws, which protect individual’s privacy with regard to personal information concerning them held by a government institution and which provide individuals with a right to access their data” (Privacy Act, 2021, para. 2).
My question after reading the article is whether these laws are upheld by relevant authorities?
Every Canadian expects these laws to keep pace with social and technological change.
-Each and every person is affected by the Privacy Act and how their personal data is handled.
Another source listed in the reference page:
Lai, D. (2007). Public video surveillance by the state: Policy, privacy legislation, and the Charter. Alberta Law Review, 45(1), 43-77. doi:10.29173/alr379

Ratcliffe, J. (2011). Video Surveillance of Public Places. Retrieved from https://cops.usdoj.gov/RIC/Publications/cops-p097-pub.pdf
In-text citation for a paraphrase of the source’s information (Ratcliffe, 2011)
In-text citation with page numbers for a direct quote from the source (Ratcliffe, 2011, pg. 7-35)
-Focus of the article: it provides an overview of the use of surveillance cameras to respond to crime.
Analysis:
-The general public is now accustomed to being monitored by surveillance cameras in several public places.
-Although some people see video surveillance as a mechanism to intrude and invade their privacy, Ratcliffe expounds on the effectiveness of video surveillance as well as addressing some privacy and constitutional concerns.
-According to the author, video surveillance is not a physical barrier. This means that the system does not limit access to “certain places, make it difficult for a person to be robbed or assaulted, or make something harder to steal” (Ratcliffe, 2011, p. 13).
-However, the video technology seeks to change the perception of the criminal so that the criminal believes that they risk being caught if they commit a crime.
Uses
-Has the potential to reduce the crime rate.
-Assist law enforcers in responding promptly to any suspicious incidents captured by the cameras enabling the criminal justice system to pursue the criminal’s conviction.
-Surveillance cameras operators can contact medical services if they notice a member of the public needs medical assistance.
Note on Evaluation of Surveillance Cameras
-The author opines that numerous studies have examined the perception of the public and video surveillance system managers in regard to the technology’s crime prevention benefits.
-The author says “These perceptions are usually positive, but evidence of actual crime reduction is harder to find” (p. 21).
-It is often challenging to establish whether video surveillance reduces crime because a problem-oriented policing solution is seldom executed without other crime prevention strategies being applied simultaneously.
My question after reading the article is why do manufacturers claim unqualified success for the systems while in the real sense they fail to captures everything? As noted from Ratcliffe’s research, video surveillance systems like open-street CCTV can only perform in limited ways – meaning that the system performs in different ways in different situations.
Another source listed in the reference page:
Carli, V. (2008). Assessing CCTV as an effective safety and management tool for crime-solving, prevention, and reduction. International Centre for the Prevention of Crime, 1-19. Retrieved from https://cipc-icpc.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/Assessing_CCTV_as_an_effective_safety_and_management_tool_ANG.pdf
Conclusion
To sum up, most governments use surveillance cameras as primary tools to monitor people’s movements and prevent terrorism and crime. Hundreds of public surveillance cameras are installed on streets, parks, hospitals, schools, and other public places to make the country safe. In addition to security and safety, the population also needs freedom and privacy. The government must secure people’s right to privacy when installing surveillance cameras. This technology can be effective without being penetrative or intrusive when technical controls and legal administrative are considered.

Bibliography
Carli, V. (2008). Assessing CCTV as an effective safety and management tool for crime-solving, prevention, and reduction. International Centre for the Prevention of Crime, 1-19. Retrieved from https://cipc-icpc.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/Assessing_CCTV_as_an_effective_safety_and_management_tool_ANG.pdf
Cavoukian, A. (2013). Surveillance, Then and Now: Securing Privacy in Public Spaces. Retrieved from https://www.ipc.on.ca/wp-content/uploads/Resources/pbd-surveillance.pdf
Lai, D. (2007). Public video surveillance by the state: Policy, privacy legislation, and the Charter. Alberta Law Review, 45(1), 43-77. doi:10.29173/alr379
Lippert, R. (2008). Open-Street CCTV Canadian Style. Retrieved from https://www.crimeandjustice.org.uk/sites/crimeandjustice.org.uk/files/09627250708553283.pdf
Privacy Act, RSC 1985, c P-21. (2021, August 12). Retrieved from https://www.canlii.org/en/ca/laws/stat/rsc-1985-c-p-21/latest/rsc-1985-c-p-21.html
Ratcliffe, J. (2011). Video Surveillance of Public Places. Retrieved from https://cops.usdoj.gov/RIC/Publications/cops-p097-pub.pdf

The logistics and supply chain management

Logistics and Supply Chain Management Concepts & Tools:
To support strategic and logistical objectives, also to follow the logistics plans and supplier chains should use both companies some tools,
• Demand Forecasting

Using analyzes, SCM processes vast quantities of supply chain data in the shortest time.

Supplier Management

When we talk about logistics management and supply chains, you need a supplier management tool that helps us understand the costs of advisories and expenses.

Transportation and logistics tools

In order to achieve a complete supply chain management solution, companies need to type of transport management. Transport and logistics tools help both companies manage the movement of inventory and materials from one location to another.

Order processing tools

Application processing is critical to any supply chain, and as such, SCM programs provide the tools to make this task easier and more efficient.

Cyber Security Question

Student Name
Department, University
Course code: Course
Instructor
Date

Cyber Security Question
Introduction
Cyber security certificates are one-year programs that concentrate on practical cyber security familiarity and capabilities. They are different from professional certifications in that they are academic qualifications offered by various universities and even colleges. Cyber security certificate programs are grouped into two major classifications. The first classification is the undergraduate certificates, which is intended to get one up to the pace regarding core cyber security problems and capabilities. On the other hand, graduate certificates are extra wide-ranging. Also, they are designed for experts who have already acquired an undergraduate degree and want to progress their knowledge, expand their occupation prospects, or take a first step in the direction of a master’s degree.
Comparison between Cyber Security Certificates in various Schools
The coursework needed to finish an academic cybersecurity undergraduate degree differs broadly with different schools. However, generally, a good number of academic certification plans need approximately fifteen credit hours. That is equivalent to a single semester that has full-time study. The main thing that one should always know is that those cyber security certifications plans are typically intended to assist students with an appropriate background in obtaining particular training and proficiency in cyber security subjects. Most essentially, these certifications’ main goal is to seal the gap between prior experiences and what is required in the cyber security labor force. Below are excellent examples of cyber security certification plans offered by various schools, including what Fairfield University offers to its students.
For instance, for a student to finish a graduate cyber security certificate at the University of Rhode Island, they are required to finish four courses. Courses offered in the school are classified into three-course classifications. The first classification is the beginning core courses, which is supposed to be taken before a student can accomplish any extra courses. Also, these courses can only be taken together with the Introduction to Information Assurance course. The second classification is the mandatory core courses, which must only be taken when one is almost ending the certificate program. They include Introduction to Information Assurance and Advanced Topics in Network and System Security. The last classification is the concentration courses, whereby a student is required to take one extra course from this classification to finish their certificate program. Courses in the last classification include Digital Forensics I, Advanced Incident Response, Advanced Intrusion Detection and Defense, Penetration Testing, and Cyber Threat Intelligence.
The other school is the Sacred Heart University that offers a cyber security minor program. The program starts with exploration courses and a well-built computer science base that includes programming and data structures. After that, the students are taught about computer networks, cyber security standards, tactics, and laws. The minor program ends with a particularized course regarding network security. The other school is Fairfield University, whereby for a student to obtain a certificate in cyber security, they need to take at least four courses. The course offered includes cloud computing and an introduction to information safety, network security, applications, and data security. Ethical hacking is also included in the course.
The University of New Haven is different from the other two universities in that it offers a variety of graduate investigation certificates, which is an additional advantage. Digital forensics appears to be common in numerous schools. However, New Haven University concentrates on its investigation in addition to a number of other investigations, which can be beneficial in cyber security. For instance, offering certificate programs like financial crime, healthcare fraud, and people trafficking investigations can benefit cyber security since the courses offered are crucial.
However, all the above cyber security certificate programs are intended to introduce students to networking, danger and threat control, structural security design, ethical and security capabilities to tackle the constantly transforming security threats efficiently. The programs introduce students to ways of establishing a safe and peril management technology surrounding, provide a general idea of appropriate technology peril management routines, and introduce students to a range of social and moral present problems over those in giving security to risk management and technology. Also, these programs assist students in being able to recognize new and existing dangers and come up with techniques to alleviate them. Additionally, provide students the capabilities to deal with security occurrences.
Recommendations
One recommendation is that the undergraduate certificate is that it should include the human factors in cyber security course, which highly recognizes that cyberspace is an enormous, complicated, and continuously changing society that presents enterprises, governments, and industries with unending security management difficulties, as it advances on an aggressive scale. The course would assist students in gaining a cyber security comprehension via investigating threats, susceptibilities, and risk effects, the spread of doubt and fear, controlling human factors in security, information assurance, and reliance management. Core units should include cyber security, which would help one develop cyber security capabilities and knowledge. Human factors and research techniques, and proficiency should also be core units in this course. The last core unit should be individual projects, which would present one a chance to scrutinize and make a report regarding particular issues in-depth significantly.
The other recommendation is an introduction of a new course named introduction to cyberbullying and cyberstalking. The two are significant issues in the current society, and numerous individuals have fallen victims. Additionally, not so many people know how to go about it, and some individuals even end up committing suicide. The course would give students an excellent comprehension of strategies that would help tackle online bullying. The course could be short and involve course introduction, team building routines, case scenarios, and bullying prevention strategies.
The other recommendation is that extra courses should be added as required courses under the criminal investigation certification. The extra courses should include an introduction to criminal justice and investigations. The criminal justice’s introduction involves history and present criminal justice system’s practice, the duties of courts, correctional organizations, and law enforcement bodies. On the other hand, the criminal investigations’ introduction involves studies on basic criminal investigation standards, including the evaluation of investigative methods, action courses, criminal patterns, interrogation approaches, etc. Documenting a crime scene is the other course that should be added. It should involve learning practical strategies used to identify evidence, documenting evidence’s location, sketching of crime scenes, and collecting and handling crime scenes’ evidence until it is presented in court. Lastly, an investigation’s law course should also be added. It should involve a thorough exploration of the United States’ constitutional law that governs criminal investigative processes.
The last recommendation is that a financial crime psychology course should be included in the financial crime investigation certificate. The course would be essential since it would introduce students to essential psychology and decision-making hypothesis perceptions. That would include modern developments like heightening the essentiality of comprehending human decision-making’s emotional facets and how it can drive people to get involved in unlawful activities.

References

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