Week fourteen docs

This week I bumped across an article talking about surveillance at the FIFA World Cup. The event attracts many players and fans alike, guaranteeing a high number of people in attendance. Qatar is the hosting country for this year’s world cup, which puts them in charge of providing security to everyone attending the event. This responsibility necessitated Qatar’s surveillance of the football crowd as a means of maintaining security. CCTV cameras have been placed strategically in the stadiums and streets to monitor fan activity (Cohen, 2022). The cameras utilize facial recognition technology to monitor and control crowds. The cameras are complemented by drone surveillance systems which help estimate number of people in any particular location. Qatari officials then use the data and footage collected to monitor key crowd control areas such as transportation systems, gate security as well as monitoring crowd activities in the streets. Independent reports from human rights activists however note that security is not the only reason for the surveillance. This move is seen as a move of limiting several freedoms which the Qatari government has explicitly prohibited. Qatar has maintained its defiance in enforcing zero tolerance to wearing pride armbands and colors, indecent exposure and public drinking of alcohol. These are some of the freedoms normalized by the Western sporting culture but shunned upon by the highly conservative Qatari society.

Maritime

Maritime regulatory approach has been the key pillar in managing the bulk carrier sector. While European Union, USCG and IMO have worked together to implement key legislations, some regulatory have impacted key stakeholders differently. In relation to this, IMO in accordance with other countries continue upholding rules to restrict excessive carbon emission to the surrounding environment. With the help of European Union, maritime activities have been safeguarded by imposing regulations that limit disposal of organism to the sea during shipping activities. Notably, the non-profit International Council on Clean Transportation outpaced efficient operation that would see growth in fleet operation while taking strong action to help incentivize the regulations. According to IMO (International Maritime Organization) argues that bulk sector has been the epitome of air pollution if no drastic action is taken in place. In an industrial setting, rules and regulation created to reduce gas emission have been received positively. However, there exist some difference among some countries on potential ways of curbing excessive release of toxic chemicals to the atmosphere. Typically, the paper aims to examine difference and similarities recent trends and consequent rule and regulations as set out by IMO (International Maritime Organization), European Union and other countries affecting the bulk carrier’s sector. Based on the findings, introduction of new sulfur cap regulation by IMO in 2020 disrupted the financial measures of business paradigm across different maritime shipping sectors. On the other hand, the complexity of the regulation has drawn some mixed reactions among the key stakeholders in the shipping industry. Considering the ballast water management can be implemented by rich nations, it has drawn controversies and major barrier in the efficiency of smooth water management. Finally, the use of scrubber remains contested regulation that not all the countries support as in accordance to the IMO regulation to prevent carbon emission to the surrounding environment

Title

Title When discussing the structural inequality faced by black America, one can expect to talk about the long history of discrimination and oppression that black people have faced in the United States (Hope et. al2015). This includes topics such as slavery, Jim Crow laws, housing segregation, and employment discrimination. Additionally, the conversation might touch on how these historical factors have led to disparities in wealth, education, and health care that black Americans still experience today. Abstract There are a number of ways in which black Americans face structural inequality. One is in the form of housing discrimination, which can limit their access to quality homes and neighborhoods (Roscigno et. al 2009). Studies have shown that black Americans are more likely to be shown lower-quality homes and neighborhoods than white Americans when they are house-hunting, and they are also more likely to be steered into predominately black neighborhoods. This can have a significant impact on black Americans’ ability to accumulate wealth, as quality housing is one of the most important assets that families have. Another way in which black Americans face structural inequality is in the form of employment discrimination. (Higginbotham & Weber, 1999) Studies have shown that black Americans are more likely to be unemployed than their white counterparts, and when they are employed, they are often paid less for the same work. Additionally, black Americans are more likely to work in lower-paying jobs and to have fewer opportunities for advancement. This can make it difficult for black Americans to make ends meet and to build economic security for themselves and their families. Additionally, black Americans are more likely to be incarcerated than their white counterparts, and they often receive harsher sentences for the same crimes (Gregory, 1995). This is due in part to racial bias in the criminal justice system, as well as to the fact that black Americans are more likely to live in poverty-ridden neighborhoods that are heavily policed. This structural inequality can have a profound impact on black Americans’ life chances and their ability to achieve economic and social success. All of these factors combine to create a system of structural inequality that black Americans must grapple with on a daily basis. This inequality can have a profound impact on black Americans’ ability to lead prosperous and fulfilling lives. Introduction Purpose of the study The purpose of this study is to investigate the structural inequality faced by black America. The study will focus on the socioeconomic disparities between blacks and whites in America, and will attempt to identify the root causes of these disparities. Additionally, the study will examine the impact of structural inequality on black Americans’ health and well-being. Structural inequality refers to the systematic disadvantage of certain groups of people within a society (Bailey et. al., 2017). In the United States, blacks have long been subjected to structural inequality, which has manifested in the form of economic, social, and political disparities between blacks and whites. The socioeconomic disparities between blacks and whites in America are well-documented. Blacks have higher rates of poverty and unemployment than whites, and they earn less money on average than whites. Blacks are also more likely to live in segregated neighborhoods and to attend under-resourced schools (Gabriel et. al 2021). These disparities are not simply the result of individual choices or personal failings; rather, they are the product of centuries of discrimination and exclusion. The roots of structural inequality in America can be traced back to the country’s history of slavery and racism (Feagin & Ducey, K. 2018). Blacks were forcibly brought to America as slaves, and they were subjected to brutal treatment and denied basic rights and freedoms. After the Civil War, blacks were ostensibly freed from slavery, but they continued to face discrimination and oppression. Jim Crow laws relegated blacks to a second-class status, and blacks were excluded from participating in the mainstream economy. This history of discrimination and exclusion has had a profound impact on black Americans’ economic opportunities and social status(Feagin & Ducey, K. 2018). The effects of structural inequality are far-reaching and have a profound impact on black Americans’ health and well-being. Studies have shown that living in poverty can have a negative impact on physical and mental health. Additionally, the stress of dealing with discrimination and exclusion can lead to health problems. The cumulative effect of these factors is that black Americans have worse health outcomes than whites. They are more likely to suffer from chronic diseases, and they have shorter life expectancies (Murray et. al, 2005) Research question What is the relationship between structural inequality and black Americans? Central concepts There are a number of ways to conceptualize the structural inequality faced by black America. One framework is to consider the historical and contemporary ways in which black Americans have been systematically disadvantaged relative to white Americans. Another framework is to think about the ways in which institutions and social structures perpetuate inequality between black and white Americans. One way to think about the historical disadvantaging of black Americans is to consider the legacy of slavery and Jim Crow segregation. Both of these systems were designed to deliberately keep black Americans in a position of economic, social, and political inferiority. The effects of these system are still felt today, as black Americans continue to experience higher levels of poverty, unemployment, and incarceration than white Americans. A second way to conceptualize the structural inequality faced by black America is to consider the ways in which institutions and social structures perpetuate inequality. For example, housing segregation is a major contributor to inequality between black and white Americans. This is because black Americans are more likely to live in poverty-ridden neighborhoods with limited access to good schools, jobs, and other resources. This, in turn, makes it harder for black Americans to escape poverty and achieve economic mobility. In sum, there are a number of ways to conceptualize the structural inequality faced by black America. By understanding the historical roots of inequality as well as the ways in which contemporary institutions and social structures perpetuate it, we can begin to develop policies and programs that address this problem in a more holistic and effective way. Objectives To measure the structural inequality faced by black America, we will use the following objectives: 1. To identify the socioeconomic factors that contribute to inequality 2. To quantify the extent of inequality using indicators such as income, wealth, education, and employment 3. To assess the impact of inequality on black Americans’ life outcomes, such as health, housing, and economic security Prior findings There is a long history of structural inequality faced by black America. This includes a history of discrimination in housing, education, employment, and other areas. There have been a number of programs and policies put in place to address this inequality, but the problem persists. The proposed problem is that black Americans continue to face disparities in many areas of life. This includes disparities in income, wealth, education, employment, and health. While there have been some progress in recent years, much more needs to be done to address these disparities. Plans The structural inequality faced by black America is a complex issue that requires a multi-faceted approach to address. One way to start addressing the issue is by advocating for public policies that will help to close the economic gap between black and white Americans. This can be done by supporting policies that create more jobs and opportunities for black Americans, increase access to quality education and job training programs, and provide financial assistance to black-owned businesses. Additionally, we can work to create more inclusive and diverse workplaces, neighborhoods, and social networks. By taking these steps, we can begin to create lasting change that will help to reduce the structural inequality faced by black America. Source of Idea The source of the idea of structural inequality faced by black America is a long history of discrimination and exclusion from opportunities in the United States (Dill & Zambrana, 2020). Blacks have been subjected to various forms of discrimination in housing, education, employment, and other areas of life. This has led to a persistent pattern of inequality in black communities, where residents have fewer resources and opportunities than those in white communities. Structural inequality is a type of inequality that is caused by the ways in which our society is organized. It can refer to things like the unequal distribution of resources, or the ways that certain groups are treated differently in our society. Structural inequality can have a big impact on people’s everyday lives, and can lead to things like economic disparities, or social and political exclusion. Importance of the study The study of structural inequality is important because it can help us to understand some of the disparities that exist in our society. It can also help us to identify ways to address these disparities. For example, if we know that certain groups are disadvantaged due to structural inequality, we can work to create policies or programs that help to level the playing field. Structural inequality is an important issue to study because it affects a large number of people in our society. It is also an issue that is often overlooked or misunderstood. By studying structural inequality, we can begin to understand the root causes of some of the disparities that exist in our society, and take steps to address them. Literature Review In the United States, black Americans have long been subjected to structural inequality. This inequality manifests in many ways, including disparities in income, education, employment, housing, and health care (Galabuzi, 2004). These disparities are often compounded by racism, prejudice, and discrimination, which further limit black Americans’ ability to access the resources and opportunities they need to succeed. Income inequality is a major problem facing black Americans. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the median household income for black Americans was $39,490 in 2017, compared to $61,372 for white Americans. This disparity is even more pronounced when looking at median household income by race and ethnicity. In 2017, Hispanic households had a median income of $50,486, while Asian households had a median income of $81,431. Black Americans’ median household income was just 62.5% of white Americans’ median household income in 2017 (Stone et.al 2019) The income inequality between black and white Americans is also evident when looking at poverty rates. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the poverty rate for black Americans was 22.0% in 2017, compared to 8.7% for white Americans. This disparity is even more pronounced when looking at poverty rates by race and ethnicity. In 2017, the poverty rate for Hispanic Americans was 18.3%, while the poverty rate for Asian Americans was just 11.0%. Black Americans’ poverty rate was more than double the poverty rate for white Americans in 2017 (Lutfiyya et. al 2008) Education is another area where black Americans face structural inequality. According to data from the U.S. Department of Education, black students are more likely than white students to be suspended or expelled from school. In the 2013-14 school year, black students made up 16.7% of the student population, but they made up 31.6% of students who were suspended from school. Black students were also 3.5 times more likely than white students to be expelled from school. The disparities in education don’t end there. Black students are also less likely to have access to quality education. In the 2013-14 school year, black students made up 16.7% of the student population, but they made up just 9.3% of students in advanced placement classes. Black students were also less likely than white students to be enrolled in gifted and talented programs. Employment is another area where black Americans face structural inequality. According to data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the unemployment rate for black Americans was 7.5% in 2018, compared to 3.7% for white Americans. This disparity is even more pronounced when looking at unemployment rates by race and ethnicity. In 2018, the unemployment rate for Hispanic Americans was 5.0%, while the unemployment rate for Asian Americans was just 2.5%. Black Americans’ unemployment rate was more than double the unemployment rate for white Americans in 2018. Housing is another area where black Americans face structural inequality. According to data from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, black households are more likely than white households to live in substandard housing. In 2015, black households made up 30.8% of all households that were living in substandard housing. This disparity is even more pronounced when looking at substandard housing by race and ethnicity. In 2015, Hispanic households made up 25.0% of all households that were living in substandard housing, while Asian households made up just 11.2%. Black Americans were more than three times as likely as white Americans to live in substandard housing in 2015. Health care is another area where black Americans face structural inequality. According to data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, black Americans are more likely than white Americans to die from preventable causes. In 2015, the death rate from preventable causes was 1,814.6 per 100,000 black Americans, compared to 813.5 per 100,000 white Americans. This disparity is even more pronounced when looking at death rates by race and ethnicity. In 2015, the death rate from preventable causes was 1,162.5 per 100,000 Hispanic Americans, while the death rate from preventable causes was just 647.0 per 100,000 Asian Americans. Black Americans were more than twice as likely as white Americans to die from preventable causes in 2015. The structural inequality that black Americans face is evident in many areas of life. Black Americans have long been subjected to income inequality, educational disparities, employment discrimination, housing segregation, and health care disparities. These disparities are often compounded by racism, prejudice, and discrimination, which further limit black Americans’ ability to access the resources and opportunities they need to succeed. Theoretical Framework As a sociological theory, structural inequality refers to the ways in which different social groups are advantaged or disadvantaged within a society (Lin,2000). It is often used to explain disparities in areas such as income, education, and health. In the context of black America, structural inequality refers to the ways in which black people are disadvantaged relative to other groups in society (Dill & Zambrana, 2020). This can be seen in the higher rates of poverty and unemployment among black Americans, as well as the lower rates of educational attainment and health. Structural inequality is a major factor shaping the experiences of black Americans. It is important to consider when studying the literature on black America, as it can help to explain some of the disparities that are seen (Noguera, 2003) It is also important to consider when conducting research on black America, as it can help to identify areas where disparities exist and to develop interventions to address them. REFERENCES Hope, E. C., Skoog, A. B., & Jagers, R. J. (2015). “It’ll never be the white kids, it’ll always be us” black high school students’ evolving critical analysis of racial discrimination and inequity in schools. Journal of Adolescent Research, 30(1), 83-112. Roscigno, V. J., Karafin, D. L., & Tester, G. (2009). The complexities and processes of racial housing discrimination. Social Problems, 56(1), 49-69. Higginbotham, E., & Weber, L. (1999). Perceptions of workplace discrimination among Black and White professional-managerial women. Latinas and African American women at work: Race, gender, and economic inequality, 327-56. Gregory, J. F. (1995). The crime of punishment: Racial and gender disparities in the use of corporal punishment in US public schools. Journal of Negro Education, 454-462. Bailey, Z. D., Krieger, N., Agénor, M., Graves, J., Linos, N., & Bassett, M. T. (2017). Structural racism and health inequities in the USA: evidence and interventions. The lancet, 389(10077), 1453-1463. Gabriel, R., Leibbrand, C., Hess, C., & Crowder, K. (2021). Race, Adolescent Exposure to Segregation, and Adulthood Residential Mobility into and out of Lower-Poverty Neighborhoods. Spatial Demography, 9(3), 309-339. Feagin, J. R., & Ducey, K. (2018). Racist America: Roots, current realities, and future reparations. Routledge. Murray, C. J., Kulkarni, S., & Ezzati, M. (2005). Eight Americas: new perspectives on US health disparities. American journal of preventive medicine, 29(5), 4-10. Dill, B. T., & Zambrana, R. E. (2020). Critical thinking about inequality: An emerging lens. In Feminist Theory Reader (pp. 108-116). Routledge. Galabuzi, G. E. (2004). Social exclusion. Social determinants of health: Canadian perspectives, 235-251. Stone, A. H., MacDonald, J. H., Joshi, M. S., & King, P. J. (2019). Differences in perioperative outcomes and complications between African American and white patients after total joint arthroplasty. The Journal of arthroplasty, 34(4), 656-662. Lutfiyya, M. N., Garcia, R., Dankwa, C. M., Young, T., & Lipsky, M. S. (2008). Overweight and obese prevalence rates in African American and Hispanic children: an analysis of data from the 2003–2004 National Survey of Children’s Health. The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 21(3), 191-199. Lin, N. (2000). Inequality in social capital. Contemporary sociology, 29(6), 785-795. National Institute of Child Health, & Human Development (US). (2000). Health disparities: Bridging the gap. The Development. Noguera, P. A. (2003). The trouble with Black boys: The role and influence of environmental and cultural factors on the academic performance of African American males. Urban education, 38(4), 431-459.

Paper 3

In the readings, I have identified many similarities between the early Jewish and Christian traditions with Islam. Muslims commonly use the names Abraham, Moses, David, Solomon, and Jesus because of their reverence for these biblical figures and because of the custom of saying “Peace and blessings be upon him” after naming any of the prophets. Furthermore, Jesus and the Virgin Mary are mentioned frequently in the teachings of Islam, with Mary being mentioned more times in the Quran than in the New Testament (Johns,2011).

professional practice

Making effective decisions Student’s Name Institution Affiliation Professor’s Name Course Due Date There are various ways of making effective decisions in future. Some of these ways are by using analytical skills, through creative thinking, and by making use of past experiences. Analytical skills involve making use of information and data to identify patterns and trends. This helps in making better predictions about future events. Creative thinking involves coming up with new ideas and solutions. This helps in making decisions that are not only effective but also innovative. Past experiences can be used to learn from mistakes and to make better decisions in the future. There are some general principles that can be followed to improve the chances of making effective decisions. One important principle is to involve as many people as possible in the decision-making process. This ensures that all relevant perspectives are considered and that the final decision reflects the consensus of the group. Another important principle is to gather as much information as possible before making a decision. This allows for a more informed decision to be made and reduces the chances of making a mistake. Finally, it is important to be aware of the potential consequences of a decision before making it. This allows for a more thoughtful decision to be made and ensures that the decision is in line with the goals of the group. This paper will explore on how the three principles can be essential in helping one make effective decisions. There are a few different ways that involving many people in decision making can help to make more effective decisions. One way is that it can help to ensure that all stakeholders have a say in the decision. This can be important in ensuring that the final decision is one that everyone is happy with and can work with. Another way that involving many people can help is by providing a variety of perspectives on the issue at hand (Coates & Tapsell, 2019). This can help to ensure that all sides of the issue are considered and that the final decision is well-informed. Involving many people in the decision making process can help to build consensus and buy-in for the final decision. This can be important in ensuring that the decision is implemented successfully and that everyone is on board with it. It also helps one to make effective decisions because it allows for a diversity of perspectives and experiences to be brought to the table. Additionally, involving more people in the decision-making process often leads to better decisions because it allows for more discussion and debate about the various options. Making decisions can be difficult, but gathering as much information as possible before making a decision can help to make effective decisions. When making a decision, it is important to consider all of the options and the potential outcomes of each option. By gathering information and considering all of the options, individuals can make more informed decisions that are more likely to lead to the desired outcome. Additionally, gathering information helps individuals to identify any potential risks associated with each option. By understanding the risks, individuals can make decisions that are more likely to be successful. Furthermore, gathering information can also help individuals to develop contingency plans in case the original plan does not work out. Overall, gathering as much information as possible before making a decision can help individuals to make more effective decisions. By considering all of the options and understanding the risks associated with each option, individuals can make decisions that are more likely to be successful (HeritAge, 2018). Another most important aspects of making effective decisions is gathering as much information as possible before making a decision. This allows individuals to have a greater understanding of the situation and the potential consequences of their decision. Additionally, it allows individuals to weigh the pros and cons of their options and to make an informed decision. One of the benefits of gathering information before making a decision is that it allows individuals to have a greater understanding of the situation. When individuals have a greater understanding of the situation, they are better able to make an informed decision. Additionally, they are better able to anticipate the potential consequences of their decision. Another benefit of gathering information before making a decision is that it allows individuals to weigh the pros and cons of their options. This is important because it allows individuals to choose the option that is most likely to lead to a positive outcome. Additionally, it allows individuals to avoid making a decision that could have negative consequences. Overall, gathering as much information as possible before making a decision is beneficial because it allows individuals to have a greater understanding of the situation, to anticipate the potential consequences of their decision, and to weigh the pros and cons of their options. Awareness of potential consequences is critical to making effective decisions. By understanding the potential outcomes of a decision, an individual can weigh the pros and cons and make a decision that is in their best interest. In some cases, the consequences of a decision are obvious. For example, if someone is considering whether or not to commit a crime, they are likely aware that the potential consequence is jail time. However, in other cases, the consequences may not be as clear. For example, if someone is considering whether or not to start their own business, they may be aware of the potential financial rewards but not the potential risks. The ability to think through the potential consequences of a decision is a key factor in making effective decisions (Abdel‐Basset, et al 2019). Individuals who are able to do this are more likely to make choices that are in their best interest, both short-term and long-term. When making a decision, it is important to be aware of the potential consequences of that decision. This awareness can help you to make an effective decision by ensuring that you are considering all possible outcomes of your choice. By considering the potential consequences of a decision, you can make sure that you are making the best possible choice for yourself and for those who may be affected by your decision. This consideration can help you to avoid making a decision that could lead to negative consequences, such as regret or remorse (Căprioară, et al 2020). When you are aware of the potential consequences of a decision, you are more likely to make a decision that you are confident in and that you can stand by. This confidence can help you to avoid making a rash decision that you may later regret. Overall, being aware of the potential consequences of a decision can help you to make an effective decision by ensuring that you are considering all possible outcomes of your choice. This consideration can help you to avoid making a decision that could lead to negative consequences and can help you to feel confident in your decision. In conclusion, Some people may find that using a systematic approach to decision-making helps them to be more effective, while others may prefer to go with their gut instinct. Ultimately, what works best for each individual will differ, and it may be necessary to experiment with different methods before finding the most effective way to make decisions for oneself. Some common methods that can help people make better decisions include gathering information from multiple sources, carefully considering all options, and using a decision-making process or framework. Additionally, it can be helpful to get input from others, either through discussion or by seeking feedback after making a decision. Finally, it is important to learn from both successful and unsuccessful decisions, as this can help improve future decision-making. References Căprioară, D., Savard, A., & Cavalcante, A. (2020). Empowering future citizens in making financial decisions: A study of elementary school mathematics textbooks from Romania. In Decision Making in Social Sciences: Between Traditions and Innovations (pp. 119-134). Springer, Cham. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-30659-5_7 Abdel‐Basset, M., Manogaran, G., Mohamed, M., & Rushdy, E. (2019). Internet of things in smart education environment: Supportive framework in the decision‐making process. Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience, 31(10), e4515. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/cpe.4515 HeritAge, A. (2018). Current Issues and Future Strategies in Sharing Conservation Decisions. Findings of the ICCROM Seminar held in Rome, 4–8 July 2011. Sharing Conservation Decisions, 1. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Isabel-Medina-Gonzalez/publication/343588383_The_Meaning_of_Further_Sharing_from_Learning_to_Teaching_Sharing_Conservation_Decisions_within_an_Active_Educational_Environment/links/5f332530299bf13404babcbd/The-Meaning-of-Further-Sharing-from-Learning-to-Teaching-Sharing-Conservation-Decisions-within-an-Active-Educational-Environment.pdf#page=12 Coates, T., & Tapsell, S. (2019). Planning for an uncertain future: the challenges of a locally based collaborative approach to coastal development decisions. Environmental Science & Policy, 101, 24-31. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1462901118313510

professional practice

Making effective decisions Student’s Name Institution Affiliation Professor’s Name Course Due Date There are various ways of making effective decisions in future. Some of these ways are by using analytical skills, through creative thinking, and by making use of past experiences. Analytical skills involve making use of information and data to identify patterns and trends. This helps in making better predictions about future events. Creative thinking involves coming up with new ideas and solutions. This helps in making decisions that are not only effective but also innovative. Past experiences can be used to learn from mistakes and to make better decisions in the future. There are some general principles that can be followed to improve the chances of making effective decisions. One important principle is to involve as many people as possible in the decision-making process. This ensures that all relevant perspectives are considered and that the final decision reflects the consensus of the group. Another important principle is to gather as much information as possible before making a decision. This allows for a more informed decision to be made and reduces the chances of making a mistake. Finally, it is important to be aware of the potential consequences of a decision before making it. This allows for a more thoughtful decision to be made and ensures that the decision is in line with the goals of the group. This paper will explore on how the three principles can be essential in helping one make effective decisions. There are a few different ways that involving many people in decision making can help to make more effective decisions. One way is that it can help to ensure that all stakeholders have a say in the decision. This can be important in ensuring that the final decision is one that everyone is happy with and can work with. Another way that involving many people can help is by providing a variety of perspectives on the issue at hand (Coates & Tapsell, 2019). This can help to ensure that all sides of the issue are considered and that the final decision is well-informed. Involving many people in the decision making process can help to build consensus and buy-in for the final decision. This can be important in ensuring that the decision is implemented successfully and that everyone is on board with it. It also helps one to make effective decisions because it allows for a diversity of perspectives and experiences to be brought to the table. Additionally, involving more people in the decision-making process often leads to better decisions because it allows for more discussion and debate about the various options. Making decisions can be difficult, but gathering as much information as possible before making a decision can help to make effective decisions. When making a decision, it is important to consider all of the options and the potential outcomes of each option. By gathering information and considering all of the options, individuals can make more informed decisions that are more likely to lead to the desired outcome. Additionally, gathering information helps individuals to identify any potential risks associated with each option. By understanding the risks, individuals can make decisions that are more likely to be successful. Furthermore, gathering information can also help individuals to develop contingency plans in case the original plan does not work out. Overall, gathering as much information as possible before making a decision can help individuals to make more effective decisions. By considering all of the options and understanding the risks associated with each option, individuals can make decisions that are more likely to be successful (HeritAge, 2018). Another most important aspects of making effective decisions is gathering as much information as possible before making a decision. This allows individuals to have a greater understanding of the situation and the potential consequences of their decision. Additionally, it allows individuals to weigh the pros and cons of their options and to make an informed decision. One of the benefits of gathering information before making a decision is that it allows individuals to have a greater understanding of the situation. When individuals have a greater understanding of the situation, they are better able to make an informed decision. Additionally, they are better able to anticipate the potential consequences of their decision. Another benefit of gathering information before making a decision is that it allows individuals to weigh the pros and cons of their options. This is important because it allows individuals to choose the option that is most likely to lead to a positive outcome. Additionally, it allows individuals to avoid making a decision that could have negative consequences. Overall, gathering as much information as possible before making a decision is beneficial because it allows individuals to have a greater understanding of the situation, to anticipate the potential consequences of their decision, and to weigh the pros and cons of their options. Awareness of potential consequences is critical to making effective decisions. By understanding the potential outcomes of a decision, an individual can weigh the pros and cons and make a decision that is in their best interest. In some cases, the consequences of a decision are obvious. For example, if someone is considering whether or not to commit a crime, they are likely aware that the potential consequence is jail time. However, in other cases, the consequences may not be as clear. For example, if someone is considering whether or not to start their own business, they may be aware of the potential financial rewards but not the potential risks. The ability to think through the potential consequences of a decision is a key factor in making effective decisions (Abdel‐Basset, et al 2019). Individuals who are able to do this are more likely to make choices that are in their best interest, both short-term and long-term. When making a decision, it is important to be aware of the potential consequences of that decision. This awareness can help you to make an effective decision by ensuring that you are considering all possible outcomes of your choice. By considering the potential consequences of a decision, you can make sure that you are making the best possible choice for yourself and for those who may be affected by your decision. This consideration can help you to avoid making a decision that could lead to negative consequences, such as regret or remorse (Căprioară, et al 2020). When you are aware of the potential consequences of a decision, you are more likely to make a decision that you are confident in and that you can stand by. This confidence can help you to avoid making a rash decision that you may later regret. Overall, being aware of the potential consequences of a decision can help you to make an effective decision by ensuring that you are considering all possible outcomes of your choice. This consideration can help you to avoid making a decision that could lead to negative consequences and can help you to feel confident in your decision. In conclusion, Some people may find that using a systematic approach to decision-making helps them to be more effective, while others may prefer to go with their gut instinct. Ultimately, what works best for each individual will differ, and it may be necessary to experiment with different methods before finding the most effective way to make decisions for oneself. Some common methods that can help people make better decisions include gathering information from multiple sources, carefully considering all options, and using a decision-making process or framework. Additionally, it can be helpful to get input from others, either through discussion or by seeking feedback after making a decision. Finally, it is important to learn from both successful and unsuccessful decisions, as this can help improve future decision-making. References Căprioară, D., Savard, A., & Cavalcante, A. (2020). Empowering future citizens in making financial decisions: A study of elementary school mathematics textbooks from Romania. In Decision Making in Social Sciences: Between Traditions and Innovations (pp. 119-134). Springer, Cham. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-30659-5_7 Abdel‐Basset, M., Manogaran, G., Mohamed, M., & Rushdy, E. (2019). Internet of things in smart education environment: Supportive framework in the decision‐making process. Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience, 31(10), e4515. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/cpe.4515 HeritAge, A. (2018). Current Issues and Future Strategies in Sharing Conservation Decisions. Findings of the ICCROM Seminar held in Rome, 4–8 July 2011. Sharing Conservation Decisions, 1. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Isabel-Medina-Gonzalez/publication/343588383_The_Meaning_of_Further_Sharing_from_Learning_to_Teaching_Sharing_Conservation_Decisions_within_an_Active_Educational_Environment/links/5f332530299bf13404babcbd/The-Meaning-of-Further-Sharing-from-Learning-to-Teaching-Sharing-Conservation-Decisions-within-an-Active-Educational-Environment.pdf#page=12 Coates, T., & Tapsell, S. (2019). Planning for an uncertain future: the challenges of a locally based collaborative approach to coastal development decisions. Environmental Science & Policy, 101, 24-31. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1462901118313510

Signals and communication Homework 2(8 problems)

Given the analog signal, sampled at the rate of 8000Hz (𝑡) = 3 𝑐𝑜𝑠( 2𝜋 × 1500𝑡) + 2 𝑐𝑜𝑠( 2𝜋 × 4200𝑡) t ≥ 0 Sketch the spectrum of the sampled signal up to 20 KHz Unsampled signal spectrum is; X(jw) —————————–(3/2)————————————- ——————————1————————————— -4.2 -1.5 1.5 4.2 kHZ Sampled signal spectrum is; X(jw) ——————————————————(3/2)——————————————————— —————————————————–1————————————————————– -17.5 -16.0 -14.5 -12.4 -11.8 -9.5 -6.5 -3.8 3.8 6.5 9.5 11.8 12.4 14.5 16.0 17 khz frequency In the above spectrum, there is an overlap. (b) Sketch the recovered analog signal spectrum if an ideal low pass filter with cutoff frequency of 4KHz is used to filter the sampled signal in order to recover the original signal. X(jw) khz frequency -3.8 +3.8 2. Assuming that a 5 bit ADC channel accepts analog input ranging from 0 to 4 volts , determine the following Number of quantization levels Levels=25=32 Quantization step size Step size Quantization output level when the analog signal is 1.2 volts =20th level Binary code produced by the ADC in this case (1.2 volts input). Binary code for decimal 20 is 10100 3. MATLAB Project: Given a signal waveform (𝑡) = 3.25 𝑠𝑖𝑛( 2𝜋 × 50𝑡) + 1.25 𝑐𝑜𝑠( 2𝜋 × 100𝑡 + 𝜋/4) Sample it at 8000 samples per second and (a) Write a MATLAB program to quantize x(t) using 6 bit bipolar quantizer to obtain the Quantized signal xq, assuming the signal range is from -5 to 5. The function below performs signal quantization decoding. Here X-min will be -5 and X-max will be +5. The function is named decodingquant and is added to the path of the software. It will be called in the main program. The bits will be 6 bits since we are using a 6 bit bipolar quantizer. function deout = decodingquant(bits,Xmin,Xmax,I) le=2*bits; delta=(Xmax-Xmin)/le; deout=Xmin+I*delta; %the following function performs signal quantization decoding. This is a code for a function named quantization that performs signal quantization: function [I, out] = quantization(bits,Xmin,Xmax, value) le=2*bits; delta=(Xmax-Xmin)/le; I=round((value-Xmin)/delta); if I==le I=I-1; end if I<0 I=0; end out=Xmin+I*delta; The main program: This is where we will call our functions: quantization decodingquant We also initialize and write the code. This program quantizes the signal using 6-bits bipolar quantizer to obtain the to obtain the quantized signal x_q and plots the original and quantized signal. clc clear close all Tm=1/50; %Time period of the signal fs=8000; %This is the samplig frequency T=1/fs; %The sampling time period t=0:T:2*Tm; %This the the two period-time array. signal=3.25*sin(2*pi*50*t)+1.25*co bits=6; %6 bit quantizer as asked in the question. l=length(signal); ter initializing everything, we carry out quantization Index=zeros; quadsignal=zeros; for x=1:l [Index(x), qout]=quantization(bits,-5,5,signal(x)); end % we call the function inprder to recover signal from quantized values. % also indicate the signal range:from -5 to 5. for x=1:l quadsignal(x)=decodingquant(bits,-5,5,Index(x)); end plot(t,signal,'b') hold on stairs(t,quadsignal,'r'); ylabel('Signal') % xlabel('time (s)') legend('Original ','Quantized ') %Inorder to plot original signal and quantised signal. hold off

Matthew Benn Eulogy

On behalf of our family, I thank everyone for being here. We truly feel supported by everyone’s kindness and prayers during this difficult time. From the day Matthew was born, he brought a joy and light to the room that nobody else could match.

Vancouver Plan

The Vancouver Plan Vancouver is a city located in Canada and the third largest metropolitan area, after Toronto and Montreal with a population of almost 2.5 million people. It is a cultural and economic center of a prosperous, dynamic and rapidly growing region with its population anticipated to grow by approximately a million more people by 2050 with about half a million more homes and jobs. The area plays an important role in the region as the largest regional center for jobs at 65% of all regional office-space construction as well as a hub for new immigrants accounting to 25% of immigrants coming to the region (Plan, 2020). The implications of this growth to the region and its residents are dependent on how the city is managed. Planning plays an important role in managing growth of cities and urban areas. Among the recent plans I the area The Vancouver plan is a visionary long-range plan that was established to guide change and growth of the city to the year 2050 and beyond with the aim to unify the vision for the future land use of the city. The plan is equipped with policies that will help Vancouver become more affordable and livable with a strong economy where nature and people are able to thrive (Plan, 2020). The Vancouver plan comprise many individual plans guided by strategies on land use that gives a clear path and set a city-wide direction to achieve shared goals in an increasingly complex future. The Vancouver Plan planning approach is guided by three foundational principals which are equity where the benefits of the change and growth are distributed across neighbors with particular emphasis on equity-denied groups, resilience that involved a proactive planning aimed at future uncertainties so as to adopt, withstand, thrive and recover from shocks such as adverse climate change and earthquakes and reconciliation that aimed at forming mutual relationships of understanding and respect as well as integrate perspectives of the urban indigenous communities in the decision making and planning process. Engagement is also a key element in the planning approach. Among the key stakeholders are residents, indigenous people, regional authorities and senior governments, businesses, non-profit civic advisory bodies, community groups and other stakeholders. Such engagements are to ensure a shared vision for future diverse communities to resonate with. During the planning conversations pilot methods for the under-represented and the equity-denied groups are formulated to ensure prioritization and inclusivity in the planning process is achieved. The three principals provide a foundation to the Vancouver Plan and are interconnected in several ways throughout the plan to serve as an implementation framework, inform policy development directly and enhance the planning process. The plan set out frameworks to address the needs of every individual including reconciliation that addresses Indigenous people and settlers who have faced colonial violence and dispossession, racist and discriminatory policies as well as segregation. Reconciliation seeks to strengthen and support the healing of past wrongs and harms that continue to this day and have happened in the past. Frameworks on equity addresses the barriers in place to access of city services and opportunities as well as participation in aspects of public life including, economic, cultural social, political and spiritual activities. These frameworks intend to align processes, decisions and policies with equity frameworks to help remove and identify barriers; make all neighborhoods more inclusive to ensure all groups and individuals participate in all aspects of public life; minimize displacement to ensuring change and growth provide opportunities for organizations businesses and residents. Framework on resilience is central at ensuring overall well-being, safety and health of the residents and the city. The frameworks are focus on preparedness and thriving neighborhoods that helps communities contribute to the decision-making, share knowledge and collectively recover and prepare for both stresses and shocks; collaborative and proactive approaches to create a better understanding of the city’s vulnerabilities, hazards, risks and strengths related to our social, economic, physical and ecological systems so as to change systems in the city that make people vulnerable; adaptive and safe building and infrastructure improves access to basic needs, ensure provision of safe and reliable services today and in future and enhances performance in case of an earthquake. Paul Davidoff advocacy planning paradigm is anchored upon the concept of pluralism in planning. The goal of the planning process is to determine which of the several vision-plans or scenarios will be implemented and adopted. With respect to adoption and implementation, every respective outcome has different costs and benefits to each of the groups involved in the planning process. The notion of pluralism in planning, use of values and choices driven by social and political issues are central aspects in making planning decisions. Paul Davidoff’s planning theory corresponds with The Vancouver Plan as among one of its major foundational principals is equity(PARKER & STREET, 2018). The approaches invested in equity include indigenous rights which recognize, uphold and protect inherent and constitutional rights of indigenous rights; racial justice which understands and talks about racial implications and actively working to dismantle racism; intersectionality which recognizes different forms of systematic discriminations and designs different ways to specifically benefit the negatively impacted; systematic orientation aimed at identifying embedded discrimination within systems and coming up with better incentives and rules that will lead to better equitable outcomes(PARKER & STREET, 2018). John Forrester and Patsy Healey’s communicative planning theory is an approach that aims to gather stakeholders and engage them in in a process of decision making together in a manner that respects the position of all involved. The main idea is that planning can become more just and democratic through enhancement of quantity and quality of communication between actors of planning such as politicians, planners, private sectors and citizens. The Vancouver plan applies the same approach in its plan preparation as engagement is a critical process so as to attain many perspectives as possible. The plan places emphasis on centering voices that have been left out in the planning dialogue ensuring that everyone is considered in the formulation of the plan. The first three engagement processes included workshops, pop-up events, surveys and engaged 28,500 contacts. References PARKER, G., & STREET, E. (2018). Advocacy planning: Enabling Participatory Planning, 43–60. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctt22h6qbk.9 Plan, V. (2020). Vancouver plan 20 50.

Models of Health Care Coordination

In healthcare industry today, care coordination models normally entails systematic strategies that are geared towards enhancing continuity and bridge transition gaps of care. In most cases, this employs the case of care or rather case management, whereby a responsible individual or team assist the patients in managing their medical care and navigate interactions with the health care systems (Vrijhoef, 2022). A care coordination model is operated by care coordinators who connect people to health and human service programs. Such systems play an important role in making referral, developing a personalized care plan, and in managing the exchange of information between health care providers and other human services organization. An effective and efficient care coordination model takes into account the general continuum of health care services, knowledge transmission, early child care and primary care and early intervention mechanism, food and nutrition elements and housing among other human services which are essential in improving the quality of life for the general population.