continuous and discontinuous function

A continuous function is a function that can be drawn without lifting your pen off the paper while making no sharp changes, an unbroken, smooth curved line. While, a discontinuous function is the opposite of this, where there are holes, jumps, and asymptotes throughout the graph which break the single smooth line.

Abraham lincoln marfan syndrome

Abraham Lincoln Marfan syndrome Introduction According to medical scholars, Marfan syndrome is a health condition instigated by inherited genetic defect tissues with the autosomal dominant mode of transmission. The heritable genetic defect is separated from the gene FBN1 present on chromosome 15, coding the fibrillin. The anomalies in the protein fibrillin cause a myriad of distinct clinical defects where the problems affecting cardiac, ocular, and musculoskeletal prevail. Of all the clinical defects of Marfan syndrome, aortic root dilatation, and dissection are the most severe as, through history, they have been anticipated as the causative factors in early patient demise. The gene occurring in the protein fibrillin gene inflicts pleiotropic aspects, which influences the massive range of phenotypic features immuted from a single gene mutation (Boritt & Borit, 1983). This paper explores the Abraham Lincoln Marfan syndrome by reflecting on the proposed historical explanations for variations in findings. It demonstrates the application of evidence-based resources in the research study to comprehend and assess MFS. The history of Abraham Lincoln linked to MFS Abraham Lincoln was the sixteenth president of the United States and was known for his dedication to leadership. The president was born in Laure County, Kentucky, in the early 19th century. Most scholars of the post-modern century were interested in researching Lincoln as he was not only a crucial figure in the politics of the United States, and his impact on making America great, but also his physical features amazed medics. Drawing from the historical aspect of MFS, Dr. A. M. Gordon was the first person to describe the condition in 1962, nearly 30 years after the assassination and death of Lincoln. The argument of Dr. Gordon was based on the physical assessment, where he compared the physical features of Lincoln t that of his mother, Nancy, and linked it to the symptoms of MFS. Irrespective of the clear evidence shown on the Marfan syndrome symptoms in Lincoln, he was never known to have a heart murmur, nor did he present loose joints. Additionally, during his autopsy, the condition of aortic anomalies was not mentioned as he did not show ocular defects, which are usually associated with Marfan syndrome. Propose Historical Explanations for Variations in Findings MFS was first described in the early 20th century by pediatrician Antoine-Bernard Marfan. In 1962, approximately five decades after the discovery of MFS, Dr. A. M. Gordon suggested the possibility that Lincoln had Marfan syndrome. Dr. Gordon, a Cincinnati physician, based his argument on the physical appearance of Lincoln and corresponded his physical features to his mother’s tall and skinny appearance. In 1964, Harold Schwartz published an article about his 7-year-old Patient, who was diagnosed with MFS. The Individual’s ancestry was traced back to Mordecai Lincoln II, the great-grandfather of Lincoln (Markets & Begkas, 2022). This inflicted an intense debate on the possibility of Lincoln inheriting MFS from his lineage. The diagnostics of Lincoln having MFS were supported by Gordon and Schwartz, basing their argument on the reviewed skeletal structure of Lincoln. Similarly, Dr. J. Willard Montgomery opposed the likelihood of Lincoln having MFS by mentioning his physical strength and athletic prowess of Lincoln. Using physical observational reference, Schwartz contributed to the debate in 1972 by using an anecdote from the photograph of Lincoln where the foot of the crossed leg late president appeared blurry in the picture. Noah Brooks, a newspaper person, proposed that the throbbing of the arteries might have caused the motion in Lincoln’s leg. Irrespective of the clear evidence of MFS on Lincoln, the late president was not known to have loose joints, nor did he have a heart murmur. After his death, the autopsy did not mention aortic abnormalities and was not anticipated to present ocular abnormalities, a disorder associated with MFS. The studies on American presidents by Dr. John Sotos, a cardiologist, suggested a new argument on Lincoln’s genetics concerning the presently revealed marfanoid syndromes. Sotos believed that the marfanoid syndromes mutations reflect the alteration of the growth factor-beta receptor. One prime marfanoid syndrome is manifold endocrine neoplasia type 2B (MEN2B)- a cancerous disorder featured by elements including; pheochromocytoma, mucosal neuromas, marfanoid habitus, and medullary thyroid cancer. Sotos applies information on Lincoln’s and Nancy Hanks’s physical features to make his assessment and arguments. According to the article, “Lincoln’s mother suffered from the marfanoid disorder and that the MEN2B disorder may have been passed to Lincoln through genes”. Consequently, DNA testing of the president was suggested in the late 1990s but was disputed after scientists denoted the presence of the MFS gene. Various objects and elements from the night of his assassination would have been used in the testing, including the pistol ball, locks of hair, and more. However, the committee of geneticists, forensic scientists, and lawyers established in 1991 ruled that testing Lincoln’s DNA was because not only the technicality involved, given the various mutations found in the Marfan families, but also because this would infringe the privacy of Lincoln. This means we cannot conclusively say Lincoln had MFS genes because of a lack of DNA testing. Identification of Pathophysiology of Marfan syndrome The concept of Marfan syndrome diagnosis is ensured on the characteristics manifestations, specifically on aortic root dilatation or mitral valve prolapse, the separation and ectopia lentis, dural ectasia, and skeletal findings. When an individual has MFS, it means that they have some defect in the gene encoding the fibrillin structure, called fibrillin-1 or gene FBN1. The MFS gene is often inherited through a modification pattern known as “autosomal dominant.” The concept of “autosomal dominant” relates to similar disorders among the genders. Studies by Asano, et al., (2022) shows that Individuals with MFS can pass the genes to their offsprings regardless of the children’s gender. 50% genes of a parent having MFS are passed to the children. From this percentage, in 25% of the incidences, the occurrence of new gene defects may be instigated. Marfan syndrome is reflected as a “variable expression” inherited gene disorder as its symptoms differ among people with it. For some people, the condition expresses at birth, while in others, it reflects in teenage or even adulthood. Various medical scholars in the post-modern world studied different molecules present in the extracellular matrix, as this would assist in elucidating the effects and causes of MFS. The studied molecules encompass but are not limited to collagen, fibrillin, elastin, and hyaluronic acid. The studies showed that mutation occurs in the fibrillin gene, mainly affecting cysteine deposits within the microfibril (Asano, et al., 2022). This means that the gene mutations are anticipated as the causal agents of abnormal protein compacted because of the modification of bonding between cysteine deposits, which then causes the production of defective microfibril. The defective microfibril is a critical component in the formation of Cystic medial necrosis (CMN), a condition that affects the large arteries, particularly the aorta. The CMN is branded by the deposition of mucopolysaccharides in the tunica media of the arteries vessels, leading to the loss or reduction of muscle and elastic fibers through the degeneration of the cystic media aortic. The degeneration of Cystic medial aortic occurs when mucopolysaccharide cysts deposits and raptures vascular smooth muscle cells. The proposition release of variable degradation, cytokines, MMP, and prostaglandin derivatives weaken the aortic walls. When these factors integrate with the condensed collagen reduces the structural stability of the aorta, leading to aneurysmal dilatation. The alteration or reduction of fibrillin-1 structures can instigate the release of TGF-beta that is confiscated. This means that MFS is fostered by vascular remodeling induced by the integrated effect of MMP-2, expanded TGT-beta, structural microfibril modifications, and MMP-9 overexpression. Clinical Manifestation of MFS Clinical manifestation of the disease requires various health assessments, including a physical examination of an individual. Because of the variable expressivity of MFS, it anticipated that there is no single sign that’s pathognomic. The clinical manifestation is founded on typical abnormalities, such as a tall and thin build and kyphoscoliosis, which are linked to physical assessment (Reilly, 2000). The cardiac, skeletal, and ocular systems are typically professed upon Marfan syndrome diagnostic criteria. Nonetheless, the disorder sometimes affects other tissues, encompassing the respiratory tract, skin, skeletal muscle, fascia, and fats. In the prospective study by Verma (2017), the physical assessment elements having maximum diagnostic results were denoted: Pectus carinatum, Craniofacial characteristics, Severe hindfoot valgus, and Thumb and wrist signs. Taking a physical assessment of Abraham Lincoln’s Marfan syndrome based on the four described features, the diagnostics showed that Lincoln had MFS. Although the anticipated condition of Marfan syndrome Lincoln was diagnosed after assassination and death, there are various clinical manifestations different scholars and medics have drawn from Lincoln’s physical assessment and anticipations by people who knew him or his lineage. From the description of different people, Lincon was a six feet four inches tall man with long legs and limbs. His shoulders are described as “slightly slumped.” From this description, Lincoln had excessive growth of long bones, one prime physic used in depicting the President (Boritt & Borit, 1983). Lincoln’s height and ungainly shows that he had limited joint mobility. Nonetheless, since he had eyesight issues as he suffered from double vision instigated by intermittent vertical hypertropia, most scholars argued that MFS probably caused the intermittent vertical hypertropia. From the clinical manifestations depicted, the president probably suffered from MFS, a condition resulting in uneven overgrowth or symptoms such as double vision, long bones, and limited joint mobility, which indicates the possibility of having MFS. The medical diagnosis is grounded on the reports of Lincoln as an ungainly individual with long legs, limbs, and a big head. Besides, it said that Lincoln had aortic inflation (AI) condition, which reflects in the pathophysiology of MFS. The pathophysiology of MFS is a multifaced process instigated by vasculogenesis and fostered by various structural microfibril alterations, encompassing MMP-2 and MMP-9 overexpression and excess TGF-beta. The clinical manifestation and claims tend to verify the possibility of Lincoln having MFS. Healthcare Planning, Intervention, and Evaluation for Marfan syndrome Marfan syndrome is a spectrum of disorders also referred to as a connective-tissue disease caused by inheritable genetic defects in an autosomal dominant manner resulting from gene FBN1 mutation. Various studies show that MFS incidences range from 1 in 5000 to 2-3 in 10,000 persons. The MFS disorder is critical when left untreated or not well managed in a patient as it inflicts a considerable shift in cognitive abilities and emotions (Jimenez, et al., 2022). Patients, families, and friends of the patients and healthcare providers need to have early identification of the MFS problem through the various symptoms and establish a suitable

Abraham lincoln marfan syndrome

Abraham Lincoln Marfan syndrome Introduction According to medical scholars, Marfan syndrome is a health condition instigated by inherited genetic defect tissues with the autosomal dominant mode of transmission. The heritable genetic defect is separated from the gene FBN1 present on chromosome 15, coding the fibrillin. The anomalies in the protein fibrillin cause a myriad of distinct clinical defects where the problems affecting cardiac, ocular, and musculoskeletal prevail. Of all the clinical defects of Marfan syndrome, aortic root dilatation, and dissection are the most severe as, through history, they have been anticipated as the causative factors in early patient demise. The gene occurring in the protein fibrillin gene inflicts pleiotropic aspects, which influences the massive range of phenotypic features immuted from a single gene mutation (Boritt & Borit, 1983). This paper explores the Abraham Lincoln Marfan syndrome by reflecting on the proposed historical explanations for variations in findings. It demonstrates the application of evidence-based resources in the research study to comprehend and assess MFS. The history of Abraham Lincoln linked to MFS Abraham Lincoln was the sixteenth president of the United States and was known for his dedication to leadership. The president was born in Laure County, Kentucky, in the early 19th century. Most scholars of the post-modern century were interested in researching Lincoln as he was not only a crucial figure in the politics of the United States, and his impact on making America great, but also his physical features amazed medics. Drawing from the historical aspect of MFS, Dr. A. M. Gordon was the first person to describe the condition in 1962, nearly 30 years after the assassination and death of Lincoln. The argument of Dr. Gordon was based on the physical assessment, where he compared the physical features of Lincoln t that of his mother, Nancy, and linked it to the symptoms of MFS. Irrespective of the clear evidence shown on the Marfan syndrome symptoms in Lincoln, he was never known to have a heart murmur, nor did he present loose joints. Additionally, during his autopsy, the condition of aortic anomalies was not mentioned as he did not show ocular defects, which are usually associated with Marfan syndrome. Propose Historical Explanations for Variations in Findings MFS was first described in the early 20th century by pediatrician Antoine-Bernard Marfan. In 1962, approximately five decades after the discovery of MFS, Dr. A. M. Gordon suggested the possibility that Lincoln had Marfan syndrome. Dr. Gordon, a Cincinnati physician, based his argument on the physical appearance of Lincoln and corresponded his physical features to his mother’s tall and skinny appearance. In 1964, Harold Schwartz published an article about his 7-year-old Patient, who was diagnosed with MFS. The Individual’s ancestry was traced back to Mordecai Lincoln II, the great-grandfather of Lincoln (Markets & Begkas, 2022). This inflicted an intense debate on the possibility of Lincoln inheriting MFS from his lineage. The diagnostics of Lincoln having MFS were supported by Gordon and Schwartz, basing their argument on the reviewed skeletal structure of Lincoln. Similarly, Dr. J. Willard Montgomery opposed the likelihood of Lincoln having MFS by mentioning his physical strength and athletic prowess of Lincoln. Using physical observational reference, Schwartz contributed to the debate in 1972 by using an anecdote from the photograph of Lincoln where the foot of the crossed leg late president appeared blurry in the picture. Noah Brooks, a newspaper person, proposed that the throbbing of the arteries might have caused the motion in Lincoln’s leg. Irrespective of the clear evidence of MFS on Lincoln, the late president was not known to have loose joints, nor did he have a heart murmur. After his death, the autopsy did not mention aortic abnormalities and was not anticipated to present ocular abnormalities, a disorder associated with MFS. The studies on American presidents by Dr. John Sotos, a cardiologist, suggested a new argument on Lincoln’s genetics concerning the presently revealed marfanoid syndromes. Sotos believed that the marfanoid syndromes mutations reflect the alteration of the growth factor-beta receptor. One prime marfanoid syndrome is manifold endocrine neoplasia type 2B (MEN2B)- a cancerous disorder featured by elements including; pheochromocytoma, mucosal neuromas, marfanoid habitus, and medullary thyroid cancer. Sotos applies information on Lincoln’s and Nancy Hanks’s physical features to make his assessment and arguments. According to the article, “Lincoln’s mother suffered from the marfanoid disorder and that the MEN2B disorder may have been passed to Lincoln through genes”. Consequently, DNA testing of the president was suggested in the late 1990s but was disputed after scientists denoted the presence of the MFS gene. Various objects and elements from the night of his assassination would have been used in the testing, including the pistol ball, locks of hair, and more. However, the committee of geneticists, forensic scientists, and lawyers established in 1991 ruled that testing Lincoln’s DNA was because not only the technicality involved, given the various mutations found in the Marfan families, but also because this would infringe the privacy of Lincoln. This means we cannot conclusively say Lincoln had MFS genes because of a lack of DNA testing. Identification of Pathophysiology of Marfan syndrome The concept of Marfan syndrome diagnosis is ensured on the characteristics manifestations, specifically on aortic root dilatation or mitral valve prolapse, the separation and ectopia lentis, dural ectasia, and skeletal findings. When an individual has MFS, it means that they have some defect in the gene encoding the fibrillin structure, called fibrillin-1 or gene FBN1. The MFS gene is often inherited through a modification pattern known as “autosomal dominant.” The concept of “autosomal dominant” relates to similar disorders among the genders. Studies by Asano, et al., (2022) shows that Individuals with MFS can pass the genes to their offsprings regardless of the children’s gender. 50% genes of a parent having MFS are passed to the children. From this percentage, in 25% of the incidences, the occurrence of new gene defects may be instigated. Marfan syndrome is reflected as a “variable expression” inherited gene disorder as its symptoms differ among people with it. For some people, the condition expresses at birth, while in others, it reflects in teenage or even adulthood. Various medical scholars in the post-modern world studied different molecules present in the extracellular matrix, as this would assist in elucidating the effects and causes of MFS. The studied molecules encompass but are not limited to collagen, fibrillin, elastin, and hyaluronic acid. The studies showed that mutation occurs in the fibrillin gene, mainly affecting cysteine deposits within the microfibril (Asano, et al., 2022). This means that the gene mutations are anticipated as the causal agents of abnormal protein compacted because of the modification of bonding between cysteine deposits, which then causes the production of defective microfibril. The defective microfibril is a critical component in the formation of Cystic medial necrosis (CMN), a condition that affects the large arteries, particularly the aorta. The CMN is branded by the deposition of mucopolysaccharides in the tunica media of the arteries vessels, leading to the loss or reduction of muscle and elastic fibers through the degeneration of the cystic media aortic. The degeneration of Cystic medial aortic occurs when mucopolysaccharide cysts deposits and raptures vascular smooth muscle cells. The proposition release of variable degradation, cytokines, MMP, and prostaglandin derivatives weaken the aortic walls. When these factors integrate with the condensed collagen reduces the structural stability of the aorta, leading to aneurysmal dilatation. The alteration or reduction of fibrillin-1 structures can instigate the release of TGF-beta that is confiscated. This means that MFS is fostered by vascular remodeling induced by the integrated effect of MMP-2, expanded TGT-beta, structural microfibril modifications, and MMP-9 overexpression. Clinical Manifestation of MFS Clinical manifestation of the disease requires various health assessments, including a physical examination of an individual. Because of the variable expressivity of MFS, it anticipated that there is no single sign that’s pathognomic. The clinical manifestation is founded on typical abnormalities, such as a tall and thin build and kyphoscoliosis, which are linked to physical assessment (Reilly, 2000). The cardiac, skeletal, and ocular systems are typically professed upon Marfan syndrome diagnostic criteria. Nonetheless, the disorder sometimes affects other tissues, encompassing the respiratory tract, skin, skeletal muscle, fascia, and fats. In the prospective study by Verma (2017), the physical assessment elements having maximum diagnostic results were denoted: Pectus carinatum, Craniofacial characteristics, Severe hindfoot valgus, and Thumb and wrist signs. Taking a physical assessment of Abraham Lincoln’s Marfan syndrome based on the four described features, the diagnostics showed that Lincoln had MFS. Although the anticipated condition of Marfan syndrome Lincoln was diagnosed after assassination and death, there are various clinical manifestations different scholars and medics have drawn from Lincoln’s physical assessment and anticipations by people who knew him or his lineage. From the description of different people, Lincon was a six feet four inches tall man with long legs and limbs. His shoulders are described as “slightly slumped.” From this description, Lincoln had excessive growth of long bones, one prime physic used in depicting the President (Boritt & Borit, 1983). Lincoln’s height and ungainly shows that he had limited joint mobility. Nonetheless, since he had eyesight issues as he suffered from double vision instigated by intermittent vertical hypertropia, most scholars argued that MFS probably caused the intermittent vertical hypertropia. From the clinical manifestations depicted, the president probably suffered from MFS, a condition resulting in uneven overgrowth or symptoms such as double vision, long bones, and limited joint mobility, which indicates the possibility of having MFS. The medical diagnosis is grounded on the reports of Lincoln as an ungainly individual with long legs, limbs, and a big head. Besides, it said that Lincoln had aortic inflation (AI) condition, which reflects in the pathophysiology of MFS. The pathophysiology of MFS is a multifaced process instigated by vasculogenesis and fostered by various structural microfibril alterations, encompassing MMP-2 and MMP-9 overexpression and excess TGF-beta. The clinical manifestation and claims tend to verify the possibility of Lincoln having MFS. Healthcare Planning, Intervention, and Evaluation for Marfan syndrome Marfan syndrome is a spectrum of disorders also referred to as a connective-tissue disease caused by inheritable genetic defects in an autosomal dominant manner resulting from gene FBN1 mutation. Various studies show that MFS incidences range from 1 in 5000 to 2-3 in 10,000 persons. The MFS disorder is critical when left untreated or not well managed in a patient as it inflicts a considerable shift in cognitive abilities and emotions (Jimenez, et al., 2022). Patients, families, and friends of the patients and healthcare providers need to have early identification of the MFS problem through the various symptoms and establish a suitable

Gambling Addiction

According to the oxford dictionary, gambling is an activity characterized by a balance between winning and losing that is governed by a mixture of skill and chance, usually with money wagered on the outcome. Gambling means that one is willing to risk something of value to them in the hope of getting something of even greater value. Gambling can affect the brain system just like drugs and alcohol, leading to addiction. If a person is prone to occasional gambling, they may continually place bets, hide their behavior, deplete savings, get involved in huge debts, or even result to theft or fraud to support their gambling addiction. (Davis 89).

Week fourteen docs

This week I bumped across an article talking about surveillance at the FIFA World Cup. The event attracts many players and fans alike, guaranteeing a high number of people in attendance. Qatar is the hosting country for this year’s world cup, which puts them in charge of providing security to everyone attending the event. This responsibility necessitated Qatar’s surveillance of the football crowd as a means of maintaining security. CCTV cameras have been placed strategically in the stadiums and streets to monitor fan activity (Cohen, 2022). The cameras utilize facial recognition technology to monitor and control crowds. The cameras are complemented by drone surveillance systems which help estimate number of people in any particular location. Qatari officials then use the data and footage collected to monitor key crowd control areas such as transportation systems, gate security as well as monitoring crowd activities in the streets. Independent reports from human rights activists however note that security is not the only reason for the surveillance. This move is seen as a move of limiting several freedoms which the Qatari government has explicitly prohibited. Qatar has maintained its defiance in enforcing zero tolerance to wearing pride armbands and colors, indecent exposure and public drinking of alcohol. These are some of the freedoms normalized by the Western sporting culture but shunned upon by the highly conservative Qatari society.

Maritime

Maritime regulatory approach has been the key pillar in managing the bulk carrier sector. While European Union, USCG and IMO have worked together to implement key legislations, some regulatory have impacted key stakeholders differently. In relation to this, IMO in accordance with other countries continue upholding rules to restrict excessive carbon emission to the surrounding environment. With the help of European Union, maritime activities have been safeguarded by imposing regulations that limit disposal of organism to the sea during shipping activities. Notably, the non-profit International Council on Clean Transportation outpaced efficient operation that would see growth in fleet operation while taking strong action to help incentivize the regulations. According to IMO (International Maritime Organization) argues that bulk sector has been the epitome of air pollution if no drastic action is taken in place. In an industrial setting, rules and regulation created to reduce gas emission have been received positively. However, there exist some difference among some countries on potential ways of curbing excessive release of toxic chemicals to the atmosphere. Typically, the paper aims to examine difference and similarities recent trends and consequent rule and regulations as set out by IMO (International Maritime Organization), European Union and other countries affecting the bulk carrier’s sector. Based on the findings, introduction of new sulfur cap regulation by IMO in 2020 disrupted the financial measures of business paradigm across different maritime shipping sectors. On the other hand, the complexity of the regulation has drawn some mixed reactions among the key stakeholders in the shipping industry. Considering the ballast water management can be implemented by rich nations, it has drawn controversies and major barrier in the efficiency of smooth water management. Finally, the use of scrubber remains contested regulation that not all the countries support as in accordance to the IMO regulation to prevent carbon emission to the surrounding environment

Title

Title When discussing the structural inequality faced by black America, one can expect to talk about the long history of discrimination and oppression that black people have faced in the United States (Hope et. al2015). This includes topics such as slavery, Jim Crow laws, housing segregation, and employment discrimination. Additionally, the conversation might touch on how these historical factors have led to disparities in wealth, education, and health care that black Americans still experience today. Abstract There are a number of ways in which black Americans face structural inequality. One is in the form of housing discrimination, which can limit their access to quality homes and neighborhoods (Roscigno et. al 2009). Studies have shown that black Americans are more likely to be shown lower-quality homes and neighborhoods than white Americans when they are house-hunting, and they are also more likely to be steered into predominately black neighborhoods. This can have a significant impact on black Americans’ ability to accumulate wealth, as quality housing is one of the most important assets that families have. Another way in which black Americans face structural inequality is in the form of employment discrimination. (Higginbotham & Weber, 1999) Studies have shown that black Americans are more likely to be unemployed than their white counterparts, and when they are employed, they are often paid less for the same work. Additionally, black Americans are more likely to work in lower-paying jobs and to have fewer opportunities for advancement. This can make it difficult for black Americans to make ends meet and to build economic security for themselves and their families. Additionally, black Americans are more likely to be incarcerated than their white counterparts, and they often receive harsher sentences for the same crimes (Gregory, 1995). This is due in part to racial bias in the criminal justice system, as well as to the fact that black Americans are more likely to live in poverty-ridden neighborhoods that are heavily policed. This structural inequality can have a profound impact on black Americans’ life chances and their ability to achieve economic and social success. All of these factors combine to create a system of structural inequality that black Americans must grapple with on a daily basis. This inequality can have a profound impact on black Americans’ ability to lead prosperous and fulfilling lives. Introduction Purpose of the study The purpose of this study is to investigate the structural inequality faced by black America. The study will focus on the socioeconomic disparities between blacks and whites in America, and will attempt to identify the root causes of these disparities. Additionally, the study will examine the impact of structural inequality on black Americans’ health and well-being. Structural inequality refers to the systematic disadvantage of certain groups of people within a society (Bailey et. al., 2017). In the United States, blacks have long been subjected to structural inequality, which has manifested in the form of economic, social, and political disparities between blacks and whites. The socioeconomic disparities between blacks and whites in America are well-documented. Blacks have higher rates of poverty and unemployment than whites, and they earn less money on average than whites. Blacks are also more likely to live in segregated neighborhoods and to attend under-resourced schools (Gabriel et. al 2021). These disparities are not simply the result of individual choices or personal failings; rather, they are the product of centuries of discrimination and exclusion. The roots of structural inequality in America can be traced back to the country’s history of slavery and racism (Feagin & Ducey, K. 2018). Blacks were forcibly brought to America as slaves, and they were subjected to brutal treatment and denied basic rights and freedoms. After the Civil War, blacks were ostensibly freed from slavery, but they continued to face discrimination and oppression. Jim Crow laws relegated blacks to a second-class status, and blacks were excluded from participating in the mainstream economy. This history of discrimination and exclusion has had a profound impact on black Americans’ economic opportunities and social status(Feagin & Ducey, K. 2018). The effects of structural inequality are far-reaching and have a profound impact on black Americans’ health and well-being. Studies have shown that living in poverty can have a negative impact on physical and mental health. Additionally, the stress of dealing with discrimination and exclusion can lead to health problems. The cumulative effect of these factors is that black Americans have worse health outcomes than whites. They are more likely to suffer from chronic diseases, and they have shorter life expectancies (Murray et. al, 2005) Research question What is the relationship between structural inequality and black Americans? Central concepts There are a number of ways to conceptualize the structural inequality faced by black America. One framework is to consider the historical and contemporary ways in which black Americans have been systematically disadvantaged relative to white Americans. Another framework is to think about the ways in which institutions and social structures perpetuate inequality between black and white Americans. One way to think about the historical disadvantaging of black Americans is to consider the legacy of slavery and Jim Crow segregation. Both of these systems were designed to deliberately keep black Americans in a position of economic, social, and political inferiority. The effects of these system are still felt today, as black Americans continue to experience higher levels of poverty, unemployment, and incarceration than white Americans. A second way to conceptualize the structural inequality faced by black America is to consider the ways in which institutions and social structures perpetuate inequality. For example, housing segregation is a major contributor to inequality between black and white Americans. This is because black Americans are more likely to live in poverty-ridden neighborhoods with limited access to good schools, jobs, and other resources. This, in turn, makes it harder for black Americans to escape poverty and achieve economic mobility. In sum, there are a number of ways to conceptualize the structural inequality faced by black America. By understanding the historical roots of inequality as well as the ways in which contemporary institutions and social structures perpetuate it, we can begin to develop policies and programs that address this problem in a more holistic and effective way. Objectives To measure the structural inequality faced by black America, we will use the following objectives: 1. To identify the socioeconomic factors that contribute to inequality 2. To quantify the extent of inequality using indicators such as income, wealth, education, and employment 3. To assess the impact of inequality on black Americans’ life outcomes, such as health, housing, and economic security Prior findings There is a long history of structural inequality faced by black America. This includes a history of discrimination in housing, education, employment, and other areas. There have been a number of programs and policies put in place to address this inequality, but the problem persists. The proposed problem is that black Americans continue to face disparities in many areas of life. This includes disparities in income, wealth, education, employment, and health. While there have been some progress in recent years, much more needs to be done to address these disparities. Plans The structural inequality faced by black America is a complex issue that requires a multi-faceted approach to address. One way to start addressing the issue is by advocating for public policies that will help to close the economic gap between black and white Americans. This can be done by supporting policies that create more jobs and opportunities for black Americans, increase access to quality education and job training programs, and provide financial assistance to black-owned businesses. Additionally, we can work to create more inclusive and diverse workplaces, neighborhoods, and social networks. By taking these steps, we can begin to create lasting change that will help to reduce the structural inequality faced by black America. Source of Idea The source of the idea of structural inequality faced by black America is a long history of discrimination and exclusion from opportunities in the United States (Dill & Zambrana, 2020). Blacks have been subjected to various forms of discrimination in housing, education, employment, and other areas of life. This has led to a persistent pattern of inequality in black communities, where residents have fewer resources and opportunities than those in white communities. Structural inequality is a type of inequality that is caused by the ways in which our society is organized. It can refer to things like the unequal distribution of resources, or the ways that certain groups are treated differently in our society. Structural inequality can have a big impact on people’s everyday lives, and can lead to things like economic disparities, or social and political exclusion. Importance of the study The study of structural inequality is important because it can help us to understand some of the disparities that exist in our society. It can also help us to identify ways to address these disparities. For example, if we know that certain groups are disadvantaged due to structural inequality, we can work to create policies or programs that help to level the playing field. Structural inequality is an important issue to study because it affects a large number of people in our society. It is also an issue that is often overlooked or misunderstood. By studying structural inequality, we can begin to understand the root causes of some of the disparities that exist in our society, and take steps to address them. Literature Review In the United States, black Americans have long been subjected to structural inequality. This inequality manifests in many ways, including disparities in income, education, employment, housing, and health care (Galabuzi, 2004). These disparities are often compounded by racism, prejudice, and discrimination, which further limit black Americans’ ability to access the resources and opportunities they need to succeed. Income inequality is a major problem facing black Americans. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the median household income for black Americans was $39,490 in 2017, compared to $61,372 for white Americans. This disparity is even more pronounced when looking at median household income by race and ethnicity. In 2017, Hispanic households had a median income of $50,486, while Asian households had a median income of $81,431. Black Americans’ median household income was just 62.5% of white Americans’ median household income in 2017 (Stone et.al 2019) The income inequality between black and white Americans is also evident when looking at poverty rates. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the poverty rate for black Americans was 22.0% in 2017, compared to 8.7% for white Americans. This disparity is even more pronounced when looking at poverty rates by race and ethnicity. In 2017, the poverty rate for Hispanic Americans was 18.3%, while the poverty rate for Asian Americans was just 11.0%. Black Americans’ poverty rate was more than double the poverty rate for white Americans in 2017 (Lutfiyya et. al 2008) Education is another area where black Americans face structural inequality. According to data from the U.S. Department of Education, black students are more likely than white students to be suspended or expelled from school. In the 2013-14 school year, black students made up 16.7% of the student population, but they made up 31.6% of students who were suspended from school. Black students were also 3.5 times more likely than white students to be expelled from school. The disparities in education don’t end there. Black students are also less likely to have access to quality education. In the 2013-14 school year, black students made up 16.7% of the student population, but they made up just 9.3% of students in advanced placement classes. Black students were also less likely than white students to be enrolled in gifted and talented programs. Employment is another area where black Americans face structural inequality. According to data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the unemployment rate for black Americans was 7.5% in 2018, compared to 3.7% for white Americans. This disparity is even more pronounced when looking at unemployment rates by race and ethnicity. In 2018, the unemployment rate for Hispanic Americans was 5.0%, while the unemployment rate for Asian Americans was just 2.5%. Black Americans’ unemployment rate was more than double the unemployment rate for white Americans in 2018. Housing is another area where black Americans face structural inequality. According to data from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, black households are more likely than white households to live in substandard housing. In 2015, black households made up 30.8% of all households that were living in substandard housing. This disparity is even more pronounced when looking at substandard housing by race and ethnicity. In 2015, Hispanic households made up 25.0% of all households that were living in substandard housing, while Asian households made up just 11.2%. Black Americans were more than three times as likely as white Americans to live in substandard housing in 2015. Health care is another area where black Americans face structural inequality. According to data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, black Americans are more likely than white Americans to die from preventable causes. In 2015, the death rate from preventable causes was 1,814.6 per 100,000 black Americans, compared to 813.5 per 100,000 white Americans. This disparity is even more pronounced when looking at death rates by race and ethnicity. In 2015, the death rate from preventable causes was 1,162.5 per 100,000 Hispanic Americans, while the death rate from preventable causes was just 647.0 per 100,000 Asian Americans. Black Americans were more than twice as likely as white Americans to die from preventable causes in 2015. The structural inequality that black Americans face is evident in many areas of life. Black Americans have long been subjected to income inequality, educational disparities, employment discrimination, housing segregation, and health care disparities. These disparities are often compounded by racism, prejudice, and discrimination, which further limit black Americans’ ability to access the resources and opportunities they need to succeed. Theoretical Framework As a sociological theory, structural inequality refers to the ways in which different social groups are advantaged or disadvantaged within a society (Lin,2000). It is often used to explain disparities in areas such as income, education, and health. In the context of black America, structural inequality refers to the ways in which black people are disadvantaged relative to other groups in society (Dill & Zambrana, 2020). This can be seen in the higher rates of poverty and unemployment among black Americans, as well as the lower rates of educational attainment and health. Structural inequality is a major factor shaping the experiences of black Americans. It is important to consider when studying the literature on black America, as it can help to explain some of the disparities that are seen (Noguera, 2003) It is also important to consider when conducting research on black America, as it can help to identify areas where disparities exist and to develop interventions to address them. REFERENCES Hope, E. C., Skoog, A. B., & Jagers, R. J. (2015). “It’ll never be the white kids, it’ll always be us” black high school students’ evolving critical analysis of racial discrimination and inequity in schools. Journal of Adolescent Research, 30(1), 83-112. Roscigno, V. J., Karafin, D. L., & Tester, G. (2009). The complexities and processes of racial housing discrimination. Social Problems, 56(1), 49-69. Higginbotham, E., & Weber, L. (1999). Perceptions of workplace discrimination among Black and White professional-managerial women. Latinas and African American women at work: Race, gender, and economic inequality, 327-56. Gregory, J. F. (1995). The crime of punishment: Racial and gender disparities in the use of corporal punishment in US public schools. Journal of Negro Education, 454-462. Bailey, Z. D., Krieger, N., Agénor, M., Graves, J., Linos, N., & Bassett, M. T. (2017). Structural racism and health inequities in the USA: evidence and interventions. The lancet, 389(10077), 1453-1463. Gabriel, R., Leibbrand, C., Hess, C., & Crowder, K. (2021). Race, Adolescent Exposure to Segregation, and Adulthood Residential Mobility into and out of Lower-Poverty Neighborhoods. Spatial Demography, 9(3), 309-339. Feagin, J. R., & Ducey, K. (2018). Racist America: Roots, current realities, and future reparations. Routledge. Murray, C. J., Kulkarni, S., & Ezzati, M. (2005). Eight Americas: new perspectives on US health disparities. American journal of preventive medicine, 29(5), 4-10. Dill, B. T., & Zambrana, R. E. (2020). Critical thinking about inequality: An emerging lens. In Feminist Theory Reader (pp. 108-116). Routledge. Galabuzi, G. E. (2004). Social exclusion. Social determinants of health: Canadian perspectives, 235-251. Stone, A. H., MacDonald, J. H., Joshi, M. S., & King, P. J. (2019). Differences in perioperative outcomes and complications between African American and white patients after total joint arthroplasty. The Journal of arthroplasty, 34(4), 656-662. Lutfiyya, M. N., Garcia, R., Dankwa, C. M., Young, T., & Lipsky, M. S. (2008). Overweight and obese prevalence rates in African American and Hispanic children: an analysis of data from the 2003–2004 National Survey of Children’s Health. The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 21(3), 191-199. Lin, N. (2000). Inequality in social capital. Contemporary sociology, 29(6), 785-795. National Institute of Child Health, & Human Development (US). (2000). Health disparities: Bridging the gap. The Development. Noguera, P. A. (2003). The trouble with Black boys: The role and influence of environmental and cultural factors on the academic performance of African American males. Urban education, 38(4), 431-459.

Paper 3

In the readings, I have identified many similarities between the early Jewish and Christian traditions with Islam. Muslims commonly use the names Abraham, Moses, David, Solomon, and Jesus because of their reverence for these biblical figures and because of the custom of saying “Peace and blessings be upon him” after naming any of the prophets. Furthermore, Jesus and the Virgin Mary are mentioned frequently in the teachings of Islam, with Mary being mentioned more times in the Quran than in the New Testament (Johns,2011).

professional practice

Making effective decisions Student’s Name Institution Affiliation Professor’s Name Course Due Date There are various ways of making effective decisions in future. Some of these ways are by using analytical skills, through creative thinking, and by making use of past experiences. Analytical skills involve making use of information and data to identify patterns and trends. This helps in making better predictions about future events. Creative thinking involves coming up with new ideas and solutions. This helps in making decisions that are not only effective but also innovative. Past experiences can be used to learn from mistakes and to make better decisions in the future. There are some general principles that can be followed to improve the chances of making effective decisions. One important principle is to involve as many people as possible in the decision-making process. This ensures that all relevant perspectives are considered and that the final decision reflects the consensus of the group. Another important principle is to gather as much information as possible before making a decision. This allows for a more informed decision to be made and reduces the chances of making a mistake. Finally, it is important to be aware of the potential consequences of a decision before making it. This allows for a more thoughtful decision to be made and ensures that the decision is in line with the goals of the group. This paper will explore on how the three principles can be essential in helping one make effective decisions. There are a few different ways that involving many people in decision making can help to make more effective decisions. One way is that it can help to ensure that all stakeholders have a say in the decision. This can be important in ensuring that the final decision is one that everyone is happy with and can work with. Another way that involving many people can help is by providing a variety of perspectives on the issue at hand (Coates & Tapsell, 2019). This can help to ensure that all sides of the issue are considered and that the final decision is well-informed. Involving many people in the decision making process can help to build consensus and buy-in for the final decision. This can be important in ensuring that the decision is implemented successfully and that everyone is on board with it. It also helps one to make effective decisions because it allows for a diversity of perspectives and experiences to be brought to the table. Additionally, involving more people in the decision-making process often leads to better decisions because it allows for more discussion and debate about the various options. Making decisions can be difficult, but gathering as much information as possible before making a decision can help to make effective decisions. When making a decision, it is important to consider all of the options and the potential outcomes of each option. By gathering information and considering all of the options, individuals can make more informed decisions that are more likely to lead to the desired outcome. Additionally, gathering information helps individuals to identify any potential risks associated with each option. By understanding the risks, individuals can make decisions that are more likely to be successful. Furthermore, gathering information can also help individuals to develop contingency plans in case the original plan does not work out. Overall, gathering as much information as possible before making a decision can help individuals to make more effective decisions. By considering all of the options and understanding the risks associated with each option, individuals can make decisions that are more likely to be successful (HeritAge, 2018). Another most important aspects of making effective decisions is gathering as much information as possible before making a decision. This allows individuals to have a greater understanding of the situation and the potential consequences of their decision. Additionally, it allows individuals to weigh the pros and cons of their options and to make an informed decision. One of the benefits of gathering information before making a decision is that it allows individuals to have a greater understanding of the situation. When individuals have a greater understanding of the situation, they are better able to make an informed decision. Additionally, they are better able to anticipate the potential consequences of their decision. Another benefit of gathering information before making a decision is that it allows individuals to weigh the pros and cons of their options. This is important because it allows individuals to choose the option that is most likely to lead to a positive outcome. Additionally, it allows individuals to avoid making a decision that could have negative consequences. Overall, gathering as much information as possible before making a decision is beneficial because it allows individuals to have a greater understanding of the situation, to anticipate the potential consequences of their decision, and to weigh the pros and cons of their options. Awareness of potential consequences is critical to making effective decisions. By understanding the potential outcomes of a decision, an individual can weigh the pros and cons and make a decision that is in their best interest. In some cases, the consequences of a decision are obvious. For example, if someone is considering whether or not to commit a crime, they are likely aware that the potential consequence is jail time. However, in other cases, the consequences may not be as clear. For example, if someone is considering whether or not to start their own business, they may be aware of the potential financial rewards but not the potential risks. The ability to think through the potential consequences of a decision is a key factor in making effective decisions (Abdel‐Basset, et al 2019). Individuals who are able to do this are more likely to make choices that are in their best interest, both short-term and long-term. When making a decision, it is important to be aware of the potential consequences of that decision. This awareness can help you to make an effective decision by ensuring that you are considering all possible outcomes of your choice. By considering the potential consequences of a decision, you can make sure that you are making the best possible choice for yourself and for those who may be affected by your decision. This consideration can help you to avoid making a decision that could lead to negative consequences, such as regret or remorse (Căprioară, et al 2020). When you are aware of the potential consequences of a decision, you are more likely to make a decision that you are confident in and that you can stand by. This confidence can help you to avoid making a rash decision that you may later regret. Overall, being aware of the potential consequences of a decision can help you to make an effective decision by ensuring that you are considering all possible outcomes of your choice. This consideration can help you to avoid making a decision that could lead to negative consequences and can help you to feel confident in your decision. In conclusion, Some people may find that using a systematic approach to decision-making helps them to be more effective, while others may prefer to go with their gut instinct. Ultimately, what works best for each individual will differ, and it may be necessary to experiment with different methods before finding the most effective way to make decisions for oneself. Some common methods that can help people make better decisions include gathering information from multiple sources, carefully considering all options, and using a decision-making process or framework. Additionally, it can be helpful to get input from others, either through discussion or by seeking feedback after making a decision. Finally, it is important to learn from both successful and unsuccessful decisions, as this can help improve future decision-making. References Căprioară, D., Savard, A., & Cavalcante, A. (2020). Empowering future citizens in making financial decisions: A study of elementary school mathematics textbooks from Romania. In Decision Making in Social Sciences: Between Traditions and Innovations (pp. 119-134). Springer, Cham. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-30659-5_7 Abdel‐Basset, M., Manogaran, G., Mohamed, M., & Rushdy, E. (2019). Internet of things in smart education environment: Supportive framework in the decision‐making process. Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience, 31(10), e4515. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/cpe.4515 HeritAge, A. (2018). Current Issues and Future Strategies in Sharing Conservation Decisions. Findings of the ICCROM Seminar held in Rome, 4–8 July 2011. Sharing Conservation Decisions, 1. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Isabel-Medina-Gonzalez/publication/343588383_The_Meaning_of_Further_Sharing_from_Learning_to_Teaching_Sharing_Conservation_Decisions_within_an_Active_Educational_Environment/links/5f332530299bf13404babcbd/The-Meaning-of-Further-Sharing-from-Learning-to-Teaching-Sharing-Conservation-Decisions-within-an-Active-Educational-Environment.pdf#page=12 Coates, T., & Tapsell, S. (2019). Planning for an uncertain future: the challenges of a locally based collaborative approach to coastal development decisions. Environmental Science & Policy, 101, 24-31. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1462901118313510

professional practice

Making effective decisions Student’s Name Institution Affiliation Professor’s Name Course Due Date There are various ways of making effective decisions in future. Some of these ways are by using analytical skills, through creative thinking, and by making use of past experiences. Analytical skills involve making use of information and data to identify patterns and trends. This helps in making better predictions about future events. Creative thinking involves coming up with new ideas and solutions. This helps in making decisions that are not only effective but also innovative. Past experiences can be used to learn from mistakes and to make better decisions in the future. There are some general principles that can be followed to improve the chances of making effective decisions. One important principle is to involve as many people as possible in the decision-making process. This ensures that all relevant perspectives are considered and that the final decision reflects the consensus of the group. Another important principle is to gather as much information as possible before making a decision. This allows for a more informed decision to be made and reduces the chances of making a mistake. Finally, it is important to be aware of the potential consequences of a decision before making it. This allows for a more thoughtful decision to be made and ensures that the decision is in line with the goals of the group. This paper will explore on how the three principles can be essential in helping one make effective decisions. There are a few different ways that involving many people in decision making can help to make more effective decisions. One way is that it can help to ensure that all stakeholders have a say in the decision. This can be important in ensuring that the final decision is one that everyone is happy with and can work with. Another way that involving many people can help is by providing a variety of perspectives on the issue at hand (Coates & Tapsell, 2019). This can help to ensure that all sides of the issue are considered and that the final decision is well-informed. Involving many people in the decision making process can help to build consensus and buy-in for the final decision. This can be important in ensuring that the decision is implemented successfully and that everyone is on board with it. It also helps one to make effective decisions because it allows for a diversity of perspectives and experiences to be brought to the table. Additionally, involving more people in the decision-making process often leads to better decisions because it allows for more discussion and debate about the various options. Making decisions can be difficult, but gathering as much information as possible before making a decision can help to make effective decisions. When making a decision, it is important to consider all of the options and the potential outcomes of each option. By gathering information and considering all of the options, individuals can make more informed decisions that are more likely to lead to the desired outcome. Additionally, gathering information helps individuals to identify any potential risks associated with each option. By understanding the risks, individuals can make decisions that are more likely to be successful. Furthermore, gathering information can also help individuals to develop contingency plans in case the original plan does not work out. Overall, gathering as much information as possible before making a decision can help individuals to make more effective decisions. By considering all of the options and understanding the risks associated with each option, individuals can make decisions that are more likely to be successful (HeritAge, 2018). Another most important aspects of making effective decisions is gathering as much information as possible before making a decision. This allows individuals to have a greater understanding of the situation and the potential consequences of their decision. Additionally, it allows individuals to weigh the pros and cons of their options and to make an informed decision. One of the benefits of gathering information before making a decision is that it allows individuals to have a greater understanding of the situation. When individuals have a greater understanding of the situation, they are better able to make an informed decision. Additionally, they are better able to anticipate the potential consequences of their decision. Another benefit of gathering information before making a decision is that it allows individuals to weigh the pros and cons of their options. This is important because it allows individuals to choose the option that is most likely to lead to a positive outcome. Additionally, it allows individuals to avoid making a decision that could have negative consequences. Overall, gathering as much information as possible before making a decision is beneficial because it allows individuals to have a greater understanding of the situation, to anticipate the potential consequences of their decision, and to weigh the pros and cons of their options. Awareness of potential consequences is critical to making effective decisions. By understanding the potential outcomes of a decision, an individual can weigh the pros and cons and make a decision that is in their best interest. In some cases, the consequences of a decision are obvious. For example, if someone is considering whether or not to commit a crime, they are likely aware that the potential consequence is jail time. However, in other cases, the consequences may not be as clear. For example, if someone is considering whether or not to start their own business, they may be aware of the potential financial rewards but not the potential risks. The ability to think through the potential consequences of a decision is a key factor in making effective decisions (Abdel‐Basset, et al 2019). Individuals who are able to do this are more likely to make choices that are in their best interest, both short-term and long-term. When making a decision, it is important to be aware of the potential consequences of that decision. This awareness can help you to make an effective decision by ensuring that you are considering all possible outcomes of your choice. By considering the potential consequences of a decision, you can make sure that you are making the best possible choice for yourself and for those who may be affected by your decision. This consideration can help you to avoid making a decision that could lead to negative consequences, such as regret or remorse (Căprioară, et al 2020). When you are aware of the potential consequences of a decision, you are more likely to make a decision that you are confident in and that you can stand by. This confidence can help you to avoid making a rash decision that you may later regret. Overall, being aware of the potential consequences of a decision can help you to make an effective decision by ensuring that you are considering all possible outcomes of your choice. This consideration can help you to avoid making a decision that could lead to negative consequences and can help you to feel confident in your decision. In conclusion, Some people may find that using a systematic approach to decision-making helps them to be more effective, while others may prefer to go with their gut instinct. Ultimately, what works best for each individual will differ, and it may be necessary to experiment with different methods before finding the most effective way to make decisions for oneself. Some common methods that can help people make better decisions include gathering information from multiple sources, carefully considering all options, and using a decision-making process or framework. Additionally, it can be helpful to get input from others, either through discussion or by seeking feedback after making a decision. Finally, it is important to learn from both successful and unsuccessful decisions, as this can help improve future decision-making. References Căprioară, D., Savard, A., & Cavalcante, A. (2020). Empowering future citizens in making financial decisions: A study of elementary school mathematics textbooks from Romania. In Decision Making in Social Sciences: Between Traditions and Innovations (pp. 119-134). Springer, Cham. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-030-30659-5_7 Abdel‐Basset, M., Manogaran, G., Mohamed, M., & Rushdy, E. (2019). Internet of things in smart education environment: Supportive framework in the decision‐making process. Concurrency and Computation: Practice and Experience, 31(10), e4515. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/cpe.4515 HeritAge, A. (2018). Current Issues and Future Strategies in Sharing Conservation Decisions. Findings of the ICCROM Seminar held in Rome, 4–8 July 2011. Sharing Conservation Decisions, 1. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Isabel-Medina-Gonzalez/publication/343588383_The_Meaning_of_Further_Sharing_from_Learning_to_Teaching_Sharing_Conservation_Decisions_within_an_Active_Educational_Environment/links/5f332530299bf13404babcbd/The-Meaning-of-Further-Sharing-from-Learning-to-Teaching-Sharing-Conservation-Decisions-within-an-Active-Educational-Environment.pdf#page=12 Coates, T., & Tapsell, S. (2019). Planning for an uncertain future: the challenges of a locally based collaborative approach to coastal development decisions. Environmental Science & Policy, 101, 24-31. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1462901118313510